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Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 35;

Approaches and Perspectives for Development of African Swine Fever Virus Vaccines

European Union Reference Laboratory for ASF, Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (INIA-CISA), 28015 Madrid, Spain
The Pirbright Institute (TPI), Surrey GU24 0NF, UK
ASTRE, University of Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, F-34398 Montpellier, France
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna (IZS-Sardegna), 07100 Sassari, Sardinia, Italy
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária (FMV-ULisboa), 1300-477 Lisbon, Portugal
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (IGC), Rua Quinta Grande 6, 2780-156 Oeiras, Portugal
Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa (CBMSO-CSIC-UAM), C/ Nicolás Cabrera nº 1, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Institute for Research and Technology Food and Agriculture (IRTA), Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
OIE Reference Laboratory for ASF, Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria Veterinaria (VISAVET), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta del Hierro, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 7 October 2017
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African swine fever (ASF) is a complex disease of swine, caused by a large DNA virus belonging to the family Asfarviridae. The disease shows variable clinical signs, with high case fatality rates, up to 100%, in the acute forms. ASF is currently present in Africa and Europe where it circulates in different scenarios causing a high socio-economic impact. In most affected regions, control has not been effective in part due to lack of a vaccine. The availability of an effective and safe ASFV vaccines would support and enforce control–eradication strategies. Therefore, work leading to the rational development of protective ASF vaccines is a high priority. Several factors have hindered vaccine development, including the complexity of the ASF virus particle and the large number of proteins encoded by its genome. Many of these virus proteins inhibit the host’s immune system thus facilitating virus replication and persistence. We review previous work aimed at understanding ASFV–host interactions, including mechanisms of protective immunity, and approaches for vaccine development. These include live attenuated vaccines, and “subunit” vaccines, based on DNA, proteins, or virus vectors. In the shorter to medium term, live attenuated vaccines are the most promising and best positioned candidates. Gaps and future research directions are evaluated. View Full-Text
Keywords: African swine fever; vaccine; immunology; vaccine gaps African swine fever; vaccine; immunology; vaccine gaps

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Arias, M.; De la Torre, A.; Dixon, L.; Gallardo, C.; Jori, F.; Laddomada, A.; Martins, C.; Parkhouse, R.M.; Revilla, Y.; Rodriguez, F.-M.; Sanchez-Vizcaino. Approaches and Perspectives for Development of African Swine Fever Virus Vaccines. Vaccines 2017, 5, 35.

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