Current Status of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Development
Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal Diseases (CEEZAD), Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Arthropod-Borne Animal Disease Research Unit, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Zakhartchouk
Vaccines 2017, 5(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines5030029
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines against Emerging and Reemerging Viral Diseases of Humans and Animals)
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that presents a substantial threat to human and public health. It is caused by Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus and the family Phenuiviridae within the order Bunyavirales. The wide distribution of competent vectors in non-endemic areas coupled with global climate change poses a significant threat of the transboundary spread of RVFV. In the last decade, an improved understanding of the molecular biology of RVFV has facilitated significant progress in the development of novel vaccines, including DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) vaccines. Despite these advances, there is no fully licensed vaccine for veterinary or human use available in non-endemic countries, whereas in endemic countries, there is no clear policy or practice of routine/strategic livestock vaccinations as a preventive or mitigating strategy against potential RVF disease outbreaks. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on the status of RVF vaccine development and provide perspectives on the best strategies for disease control. Herein, we argue that the routine or strategic vaccination of livestock could be the best control approach for preventing the outbreak and spread of future disease.