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Vaccines 2016, 4(3), 30;

T-Regulatory Cells and Vaccination “Pay Attention and Do Not Neglect Them”: Lessons from HIV and Cancer Vaccine Trials

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U955, Equipe 16, Créteil 94000, France
Faculté de médecine, Université Paris Est, Créteil 94000, France
Vaccine Research Institute (VRI), Créteil 94000, France
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
AP-HP, Hôpital H. Mondor—A. Chenevier, Service d’immunologie clinique et maladies infectieuses, Créteil 94000, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen Todryk
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 18 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 5 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell Memory to Vaccination)
Full-Text   |   PDF [226 KB, uploaded 5 September 2016]


Efficient vaccines are characterized by the establishment of long-lived memory T cells, including T-helper (effectors and follicular) and T-regulatory cells (Tregs). While the former induces cytotoxic or antibody responses, the latter regulates immune responses by maintaining homeostasis. The role of Tregs in inflammatory conditions is ambiguous and their systematic monitoring in vaccination along with effector T-cells is not instinctive. Recent studies from the cancer field clearly showed that Tregs suppress vaccine-induced immune responses and correlate with poor clinical benefit. In HIV infection, Tregs are needed during acute infection to preserve tissue integrity from an overwhelmed activation, but are not beneficial in chronic infection as they suppress anti-HIV responses. Current assays used to evaluate vaccine-induced specific responses are limited as they do not take into account antigen-specific Tregs. However, new assays, such as the OX40 assay, which allow for the simultaneous detection of a full range of Th-responses including antigen-specific Tregs responses, can overcome these issues. In this review article we will revise the role of Tregs in vaccination and review the recent work performed in the field, including the available tools to monitor them, from novel assays to humanized mouse models. View Full-Text
Keywords: memory cell; Tregs; HIV; vaccine; DC-based vaccine; OX40; CD25; CD39; hu-mice memory cell; Tregs; HIV; vaccine; DC-based vaccine; OX40; CD25; CD39; hu-mice
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Brezar, V.; Godot, V.; Cheng, L.; Su, L.; Lévy, Y.; Seddiki, N. T-Regulatory Cells and Vaccination “Pay Attention and Do Not Neglect Them”: Lessons from HIV and Cancer Vaccine Trials. Vaccines 2016, 4, 30.

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