Next Article in Journal
Chitosan-Poly (I:C)-PADRE Based Nanoparticles as Delivery Vehicles for Synthetic Peptide Vaccines
Previous Article in Journal
Gas Vesicle Nanoparticles for Antigen Display
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Vaccines 2015, 3(3), 703-729;

The Role of Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase in Immune Suppression and Autoimmunity

Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
California Baptist University, Riverside, CA 92504, USA
Department of Molecular Biology, Chonbuk National University, Jeon-Ju 54896, Korea
Endocrinology Section, JL Pettis Memorial VA Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92357, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diane M. Harper
Received: 7 August 2015 / Revised: 26 August 2015 / Accepted: 2 September 2015 / Published: 10 September 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [575 KB, uploaded 15 September 2015]   |  


Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the first and rate limiting catabolic enzyme in the degradation pathway of the essential amino acid tryptophan. By cleaving the aromatic indole ring of tryptophan, IDO initiates the production of a variety of tryptophan degradation products called “kynurenines” that are known to exert important immuno-regulatory functions. Because tryptophan must be supplied in the diet, regulation of tryptophan catabolism may exert profound effects by activating or inhibiting metabolism and immune responses. Important for survival, the regulation of IDO biosynthesis and its activity in cells of the immune system can critically alter their responses to immunological insults, such as infection, autoimmunity and cancer. In this review, we assess how IDO-mediated catabolism of tryptophan can modulate the immune system to arrest inflammation, suppress immunity to cancer and inhibit allergy, autoimmunity and the rejection of transplanted tissues. Finally, we examine how vaccines may enhance immune suppression of autoimmunity through the upregulation of IDO biosynthesis in human dendritic cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase; Tryptophan; NF-κB; Vaccine; CTB-INS Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase; Tryptophan; NF-κB; Vaccine; CTB-INS

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mbongue, J.C.; Nicholas, D.A.; Torrez, T.W.; Kim, N.-S.; Firek, A.F.; Langridge, W.H. The Role of Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase in Immune Suppression and Autoimmunity. Vaccines 2015, 3, 703-729.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Vaccines EISSN 2076-393X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top