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Vaccines 2015, 3(2), 390-407;

CpG Oligonucleotides as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants

Department of Clinical Oncology, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai 980-8577, Japan
Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mary Lenora (Nora) Disis
Received: 24 March 2015 / Revised: 23 April 2015 / Accepted: 28 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines)
Full-Text   |   PDF [318 KB, uploaded 8 May 2015]


Adjuvants improve host responsiveness to co-delivered vaccines through a variety of mechanisms. Agents that trigger cells expressing Toll-like receptors (TLR) activate an innate immune response that enhances the induction of vaccine-specific immunity. When administered in combination with vaccines designed to prevent or slow tumor growth, TLR agonists have significantly improved the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Unfortunately, vaccines containing TLR agonists have rarely been able to eliminate large established tumors when administered systemically. To improve efficacy, attention has focused on delivering TLR agonists intra-tumorally with the intent of altering the tumor microenvironment. Agonists targeting TLRs 7/8 or 9 can reduce the frequency of Tregs while causing immunosuppressive MDSC in the tumor bed to differentiate into tumoricidal macrophages thereby enhancing tumor elimination. This work reviews pre-clinical and clinical studies concerning the utility of TLR 7/8/9 agonists as adjuvants for tumor vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: CpG; TLR; vaccine; cancer CpG; TLR; vaccine; cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Shirota, H.; Tross, D.; Klinman, D.M. CpG Oligonucleotides as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants. Vaccines 2015, 3, 390-407.

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