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Vaccines 2015, 3(1), 172-185;

Emerging Influenza Strains in the Last Two Decades: A Threat of a New Pandemic?

Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro, 53100 Siena, Italy
VisMederi Srl, Enterprise of Service in Life Sciences, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
Independent Consultant, Vienna 1221, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sarah Gilbert
Received: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 18 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza Vaccines)
Full-Text   |   PDF [233 KB, uploaded 18 March 2015]


In the last 20 years, novel non-seasonal influenza viruses have emerged, most of which have originated from birds. Despite their apparent inability to cause pandemics, with the exception of H1N1 swine influenza virus, these viruses still constitute a constant threat to public health. While general concern has decreased after the peak of the H5N1 virus, in recent years several novel reassorted influenza viruses (e.g., H7N9, H9N2, H10N8) have jumped the host-species barrier and are under surveillance by the scientific community and public health systems. It is still unclear whether these viruses can actually cause pandemics or just isolated episodes. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of old and novel potential pandemic strains of recent decades. View Full-Text
Keywords: pandemic; novel influenza viruses; H7N9; H9N2; H10N8 pandemic; novel influenza viruses; H7N9; H9N2; H10N8
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Trombetta, C.; Piccirella, S.; Perini, D.; Kistner, O.; Montomoli, E. Emerging Influenza Strains in the Last Two Decades: A Threat of a New Pandemic? Vaccines 2015, 3, 172-185.

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