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Article

Duration of SARS-CoV-2 Immune Responses Up to Six Months Following Homologous or Heterologous Primary Immunization with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccines

1
Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, 182 88 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
3
Department of Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Sweden, 171 82 Solna, Sweden
4
Department of Protein Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SciLifeLab, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden
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Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
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Department of Pharmacy, SciLifeLab, Uppsala University, 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
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Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, 141 52 Stockholm, Sweden
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Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry, SciLifeLab, Uppsala University, 753 09 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Angelos Hatzakis
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030359
Received: 2 February 2022 / Revised: 20 February 2022 / Accepted: 21 February 2022 / Published: 24 February 2022
Heterologous primary immunization against SARS-CoV-2 is part of applied recommendations. However, little is known about duration of immune responses after heterologous vaccine regimens. To evaluate duration of immune responses after primary vaccination with homologous adeno-vectored ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (ChAd) or heterologous ChAd/BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (BNT), anti-spike-IgG and SARS-CoV-2 VOC-neutralizing antibody responses were measured in 354 healthcare workers (HCW) at 2 weeks, 3 months, 5 months and 6 months after the second vaccine dose. T-cell responses were investigated using a whole blood interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assay 2 weeks and 3 months post second vaccine dose. Two hundred and ten HCW immunized with homologous BNT were enrolled for comparison of antibody responses. In study participants naïve to SARS-CoV-2 prior to vaccination, heterologous ChAd/BNT resulted in 6-fold higher peak anti-spike IgG antibody titers compared to homologous ChAd vaccination. The half-life of antibody titers was 3.1 months (95% CI 2.8–3.6) following homologous ChAd vaccination and 1.9 months (95% CI 1.7–2.1) after heterologous vaccination, reducing the GMT difference between the groups to 3-fold 6 months post vaccination. Peak T-cell responses were stronger in ChAd/BNT vaccinees, but no significant difference was observed 3 months post vaccination. SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to vaccination resulted in substantially higher peak GMTs and IFN-γ levels and enhanced SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody and T cell responses over time. Heterologous primary SARS-CoV-2 immunization with ChAd and BNT elicits a stronger initial immune response compared to homologous vaccination with ChAd. However, although the differences in humoral responses remain over 6 months, the difference in SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses are no longer significant three months after vaccination. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; heterologous; immune response; duration; antibodies; humoral response; T-cells; immunity; immunology COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; heterologous; immune response; duration; antibodies; humoral response; T-cells; immunity; immunology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marking, U.; Havervall, S.; Greilert-Norin, N.; Ng, H.; Blom, K.; Nilsson, P.; Phillipson, M.; Hober, S.; Nilsson, C.; Mangsbo, S.; Christ, W.; Klingström, J.; Gordon, M.; Åberg, M.; Thålin, C. Duration of SARS-CoV-2 Immune Responses Up to Six Months Following Homologous or Heterologous Primary Immunization with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccines. Vaccines 2022, 10, 359. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030359

AMA Style

Marking U, Havervall S, Greilert-Norin N, Ng H, Blom K, Nilsson P, Phillipson M, Hober S, Nilsson C, Mangsbo S, Christ W, Klingström J, Gordon M, Åberg M, Thålin C. Duration of SARS-CoV-2 Immune Responses Up to Six Months Following Homologous or Heterologous Primary Immunization with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccines. Vaccines. 2022; 10(3):359. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030359

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marking, Ulrika, Sebastian Havervall, Nina Greilert-Norin, Henry Ng, Kim Blom, Peter Nilsson, Mia Phillipson, Sophia Hober, Charlotta Nilsson, Sara Mangsbo, Wanda Christ, Jonas Klingström, Max Gordon, Mikael Åberg, and Charlotte Thålin. 2022. "Duration of SARS-CoV-2 Immune Responses Up to Six Months Following Homologous or Heterologous Primary Immunization with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccines" Vaccines 10, no. 3: 359. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030359

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