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Immunization of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Broodstock with Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) Inactivated Vaccines Elicits Protective Antibody and Passive Maternal Antibody Transfer

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Center of Excellence in Fish Infectious Diseases (CE FID), Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
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The International Graduate Program of Veterinary Science and Technology (VST), Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
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Division of Aquacultural Biotechnology, Biotechnology Center of Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh 700000, Vietnam
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Center of Excellence in Aquatic Animal Health Management, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
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Fish Health Platform, Center of Excellence for Shrimp Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (Centex Shrimp), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
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National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Khlong Nueng 12120, Thailand
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Aquaculture Research Group, Moredun Research Institute, Edinburgh EH26 0PZ, UK
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Infection and Immunity Division, Roslin Institute, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK
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Aquaculture and Aquatic Resources Program, Department of Food, Agriculture and Bioresources, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Khlong Nueng 12120, Thailand
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zhiqiang Ku
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020167
Received: 30 December 2021 / Revised: 17 January 2022 / Accepted: 19 January 2022 / Published: 21 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody Response to Infection and Vaccination)
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV), a major pathogen of farmed tilapia, is known to be vertically transmitted. Here, we hypothesize that Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) broodstock immunized with a TiLV inactivated vaccine can mount a protective antibody response and passively transfer maternal antibodies to their fertilized eggs and larvae. To test this hypothesis, three groups of tilapia broodstock, each containing four males and eight females, were immunized with either a heat-killed TiLV vaccine (HKV), a formalin-killed TiLV vaccine (FKV) (both administered at 3.6 × 106 TCID50 per fish), or with L15 medium. Booster vaccination with the same vaccines was given 3 weeks later, and mating took place 1 week thereafter. Broodstock blood sera, fertilized eggs and larvae were collected from 6–14 weeks post-primary vaccination for measurement of TiLV-specific antibody (anti-TiLV IgM) levels. In parallel, passive immunization using sera from the immunized female broodstock was administered to naïve tilapia juveniles to assess if antibodies induced in immunized broodstock were protective. The results showed that anti-TiLV IgM was produced in the majority of both male and female broodstock vaccinated with either the HKV or FKV and that these antibodies could be detected in the fertilized eggs and larvae from vaccinated broodstock. Higher levels of maternal antibody were observed in fertilized eggs from broodstock vaccinated with HKV than those vaccinated with FKV. Low levels of TiLV-IgM were detected in some of the 1–3 day old larvae but were undetectable in 7–14 day old larvae from the vaccinated broodstock, indicating a short persistence of TiLV-IgM in larvae. Moreover, passive immunization proved that antibodies elicited by TiLV vaccination were able to confer 85% to 90% protection against TiLV challenge in naïve juvenile tilapia. In conclusion, immunization of tilapia broodstock with TiLV vaccines could be a potential strategy for the prevention of TiLV in tilapia fertilized eggs and larvae, with HKV appearing to be more promising than FKV for maternal vaccination. View Full-Text
Keywords: tilapia broodstock; inactivated vaccines; maternal passive immunity; antibody tilapia broodstock; inactivated vaccines; maternal passive immunity; antibody
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mai, T.T.; Kayansamruaj, P.; Soontara, C.; Kerddee, P.; Nguyen, D.-H.; Senapin, S.; Costa, J.Z.; del-Pozo, J.; Thompson, K.D.; Rodkhum, C.; Dong, H.T. Immunization of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Broodstock with Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) Inactivated Vaccines Elicits Protective Antibody and Passive Maternal Antibody Transfer. Vaccines 2022, 10, 167. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020167

AMA Style

Mai TT, Kayansamruaj P, Soontara C, Kerddee P, Nguyen D-H, Senapin S, Costa JZ, del-Pozo J, Thompson KD, Rodkhum C, Dong HT. Immunization of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Broodstock with Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) Inactivated Vaccines Elicits Protective Antibody and Passive Maternal Antibody Transfer. Vaccines. 2022; 10(2):167. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020167

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mai, Thao T., Pattanapon Kayansamruaj, Chayanit Soontara, Pattarawit Kerddee, Dinh-Hung Nguyen, Saengchan Senapin, Janina Z. Costa, Jorge del-Pozo, Kim D. Thompson, Channarong Rodkhum, and Ha T. Dong. 2022. "Immunization of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Broodstock with Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) Inactivated Vaccines Elicits Protective Antibody and Passive Maternal Antibody Transfer" Vaccines 10, no. 2: 167. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020167

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