A Threat- and Efficacy-Based Framework to Understand Confidence in Vaccines among the Public Health Workforce
2. The Extended Parallel Process Model and Its Application to Confidence in Vaccines
3. Laws and Policies of Relevance to Public Health Providers’ Confidence in Vaccines
3.1. National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program
3.2. Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act
3.3. Mandatory Vaccination of Healthcare Workers
4. Role of Law in Behavior Change
5. Implications of EPPM for Vaccine Policy Contexts and Confidence
Conflict of Interest
- Caban-Martinez, A.J.; Lee, D.J.; Davila, E.P.; LeBlanc, W.G.; Arheart, K.L.; McCollister, K.E.; Christ, S.L.; Clarke, T.; Fleming, L.E. Sustained low influenza vaccination rates in US healthcare workers. Prev. Med. 2010, 50, 210–212. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Habib, S.; Rishpon, S.; Rubin, L. Influenza vaccination among healthcare workers. Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 2000, 2, 899–901. [Google Scholar]
- DeSante, J.E.; Caplan, A.; Shofer, F.; Behrman, A.J. Physician attitudes towards influenza immunization and vaccine mandates. Vaccine 2010, 28, 2517–2521. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Douville, L.E.; Myers, A.; Jackson, M.A.; Lantos, J.D. Healthcare worker knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mandatory influenza vaccination. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 2010, 164, 33–37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hollmeyer, H.G.; Hayden, F.; Poland, G.; Buchholz, U. Influenza vaccination of healthcare workers in hospitals—A review of studies on attitudes and predictors. Vaccine 2009, 27, 3935–3944. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rehmani, R.; Memon, J.I. Knowledge, Attitudes and beliefs regarding influenza vaccination among healthcare workers in a saudi hospital. Vaccine 2010, 28, 4283–4287. [Google Scholar]
- Vírseda, S.; Restrepo, M.A.; Arranz, E.; Magán-Tapia, P.; Fernández-Ruiz, M.; de la Cámara, A.G.; Aguado, J.M.; López-Medrano, F. Seasonal and pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccination coverage and attitudes among health-care workers in a Spanish university hospital. Vaccine 2010, 28, 4751–4757. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Esteves-Jaramillo, A.; Omer, S.B.; Gonzalez-Diaz, E.; Salmon, D.A.; Hixson, B.; Navarro, F.; Kawa-Karasik, S.; Frew, P.; Morfin-Otero, R.; Rodriguez-Noriega, E.; et al. Acceptance of a vaccine against novel influenza a (H1N1) virus among healthcare workers in two major cities in Mexico. Arch. Med. Res. 2009, 40, 705–711. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Irvin, C.B.; Cindrich, L.; Patterson, W.; Southall, A. Survey of hospital healthcare personnel response during a potential avian influenza pandemic: Will they come to work? Prehosp. Disaster Med. 2008, 23, 328–335. [Google Scholar]
- Garrett, A.L.; Park, Y.S.; Redlener, I. Mitigating absenteeism in hospital workers during a pandemic. Disaster Med. Public Health Prep. 2009, 3, S141–S147. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, USA, The Future of the Public’s Health in the 21st Century; National Academies Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2002.
- Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, USA, Research Priorities in Emergency Preparedness and Response: A Letter Report; National Academies Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2008; pp. 1–42.
- Seib, K.; Barnett, D.J.; Weiss, P.S.; Omer, S.B. Vaccine-related standard of care and willingness to respond to public health emergencies: A cross-sectional survey of california vaccine providers. Vaccine 2012, 31, 196–201. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barnett, D.J.; Thompson, C.B.; Errett, N.A.; Semon, N.L.; Anderson, M.K.; Ferrell, J.L.; Freiheit, J.M.; Hudson, R.; Koch, M.M.; McKee, M.; et al. Determinants of emergency response willingness in the local public health workforce by jurisdictional and scenario patterns: A cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health 2012, 12, 164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barnett, D.J.; Balicer, R.D.; Thompson, C.B.; Storey, J.D.; Omer, S.B.; Semon, N.L.; Bayer, S.; Cheek, L.V.; Gately, K.W.; Lanza, K.M.; et al. Assessment of local public health workers’ willingness to respond to pandemic influenza through application of the extended parallel process model. PLoS One 2009, 4, e6365. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Witte, K. Putting the fear back into fear appeals: The extended parallel process model. Commun. Monogr. 1992, 59, 329–349. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Witte, K. Fear control and danger control: A Test of the extended parallel process model. Commun. Monogr. 1994, 61, 113–134. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bandura, A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol. Rev. 1977, 184, 191–215. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Askelson, N.M.; Chi, D.L.; Momany, E.; Kuthy, R.; Ortiz, C.; Hanson, J.H.; Damiano, P. Encouraging early preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children enrolled in medicaid: Using the extended parallel process model to conduct formative research. J. Public Health Dent. 2012. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Campo, S.; Askelson, N.M.; Spies, E.L.; Losch, M. Ambivalence, communication and past use: understanding what influences women’s intentions to use contraceptives. Psychol.Health Med. 2012, 17, 356–365. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pengchit, W.; Walters, S.T.; Simmons, R.G.; Kohlmann, W.; Burt, R.W.; Schwartz, M.D.; Kinney, A.Y. Motivation-based intervention to promote colonoscopy screening: an integration of a fear management model and motivational interviewing. J. Health Psychol. 2011, 16, 1187–1197. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kotowski, M.R.; Smith, S.W.; Johnstone, P.M.; Pritt, E. Using the extended parallel process model to create and evaluate the effectiveness of brochures to reduce the risk for noise-induced hearing loss in college students. Noise Health 2011, 13, 261–271. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia. Health Educ. Behav. 2004, 31, 741–755. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wong, N.C.; Cappella, J.N. Antismoking threat and efficacy appeals: Effects on smoking cessation intentions for smokers with low and high readiness to quit. J. Appl. Commun. Res. 2009, 37, 1–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Siu, W. Extended parallel process model and H5N1 influenza virus. Psychol. Rep. 2008, 102, 539–550. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cameron, K.A.; Rintamaki, L.S.; Kamanda-Kosseh, M.; Noskin, G.A.; Baker, D.W.; Makoul, G. Using theoretical constructs to identify key issues for targeted message design: African American Seniors’ perceptions about influenza and influenza vaccination. Health Commun. 2009, 24, 316–326. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Prati, F.; Pietrantoni, L.; Zani, B. Influenza vaccination: the persuasiveness of messages among people aged 65 years and older. Health Commun. 2012, 27, 413–420. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Health Resources and Services Administration, What You Need to Know about the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Rockville, MD, USA, 2011.
- Rutkow, L.; Maggy, B.; Zablotsky, J.; Oliver, T.R. Balancing consumer and industry interests in public health: The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program and its influence during the last two decades. Penn. State Law Rev. 2007, 111, 681–738. [Google Scholar]
- Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Vaccine Injury Table. Available online: http://www.hrsa.gov/vaccinecompensation/vaccinetable.html/ (accessed on 10 December 2012).
- United States Code, Title 42, Section 300aa-15(a). 2012.
- Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness (PREP), Act in 2006. Public Law Number 109-148. 2005.
- Health Resources and Services Administration, Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program. Available online: http://www.hrsa.gov/gethealthcare/conditions/countermeasurescomp/index.html/ (accessed on 10 December 2012).
- United States Code, Title 42, section 247d-6d(b). 2012.
- Pandemic Influenza Vaccines—Amendment. Federal Register. 75, 10,268. 5 March 2010.
- Crawford, K.S.; Axelrad, J. Legislative modifications to tort liability: the unintended consequence of public health and bioterrorism threats. Creighton Law Rev. 2012, 45, 337–360. [Google Scholar]
- Jacobson v. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 197 U.S. 11. 1905.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccination coverage among children in Kindergarten-United States, 2011-21 School Year. MMWR Morb. Mortal Wkly. Rep. 2012, 61, 647–652.
- Stewart, A.M.; Rosenbaum, S. Vaccinating the health-care workforce: State law vs. institutional requirements. Public Health Rep. 2010, 125, 615–618. [Google Scholar]
- Parmet, W.E. Pandemic vaccines—The legal landscape. N. Engl. J. Med. 2010, 362, 1949–1952. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bader, P.; Boisclair, D.; Ferrence, R. Effects of tobacco taxation and pricing on smoking behavior in high risk populations: A knowledge synthesis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2011, 8, 4118–4139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Middlestadt, S.E.; Macy, J.T.; Seo, D.C.; Jay, S.J.; Kolbe, L.J. The combined effect of behavioral intention and exposure to a smoke-free air law on taking measures to quit smoking. Health Promot. Pract. 2012, 13, 553–558. [Google Scholar]
- O’Connor, R.J.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Carter, L.P.; Cummings, K.M. What would menthol smokers do if menthol cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand. Addiction 2012, 107, 1330–1338. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Strine, T.W.; Beck, L.; Bolen, J.; Okoro, C.; Li, C. Potential moderating role of seat belt law on the relationship between seat belt use and adverse health behavior. Am. J. Health Behav. 2012, 36, 44–55. [Google Scholar]
- Chaudhary, N.K.; Tison, J.; Casanova, T. The Effects of maine’s change to primary seat belt law on seat belt use and public perception and awareness. Traffic Inj. Prev. 2010, 11, 165–172. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Carpenter, C.S.; Stehr, M. The effects of mandatory seatbelt laws on seatbelt use, motor vehicle fatalities, and crash-related injuries among youth. J. Health Econ. 2008, 27, 642–662. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Traynor, T.L. The impact of state level behavioral regulations on traffic fatality rates. J. Safety Res. 2009, 40, 421–426. [Google Scholar]
- Fell, J.C.; Fisher, D.A.; Voas, R.B.; Blackman, K.; Tippetts, A.S. The impact of underage driving laws on alcohol-related fatal crashes of young drivers. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 2009, 33, 1208–1219. [Google Scholar]
- Balicer, R.D.; Barnett, D.J.; Thompson, C.B.; Hsu, E.B.; Catlett, C.L.; Watson, C.M.; Semon, N.L.; Gwon, H.S.; Links, J.M. Characterizing hospital workers’ willingness to report to duty in an influenza pandemic through threat- and efficacy-based assessment. BMC Public Health 2010, 10, 436. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Errett, N.A.; Barnett, D.J.; Thompson, C.B.; Tosatto, R.; Austin, B.; Schaffzin, S.; Ansari, A.; Semon, N.L.; Balicer, R.D.; Links, J.M. Assessment of medical reserve corps volunteers emergency response willingness using a threat- and efficacy-based model. Biosecur. Bioterror. 2013, 11, 29–40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barnett, D.J.; Levine, R.; Thompson, C.B.; Wijetunge, G.U.; Oliver, A.L.; Bentley, M.A.; Neubert, P.D.; Pirrallo, R.G.; Links, J.M.; Balicer, R.D.; et al. Emergency medical services workers willingness to respond to pandemic influenza using a threat- and efficacy-based assessment framework. PLoS One 2010, 5, e9856. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
© 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
Share and Cite
Barnett, D.J.; Errett, N.A.; Rutkow, L. A Threat- and Efficacy-Based Framework to Understand Confidence in Vaccines among the Public Health Workforce. Vaccines 2013, 1, 77-87. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines1020077
Barnett DJ, Errett NA, Rutkow L. A Threat- and Efficacy-Based Framework to Understand Confidence in Vaccines among the Public Health Workforce. Vaccines. 2013; 1(2):77-87. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines1020077Chicago/Turabian Style
Barnett, Daniel J., Nicole A. Errett, and Lainie Rutkow. 2013. "A Threat- and Efficacy-Based Framework to Understand Confidence in Vaccines among the Public Health Workforce" Vaccines 1, no. 2: 77-87. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines1020077