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Review

Importance of the Use of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Inflammatory Profile in Aqueous and Vitreous Humor in Diabetic Retinopathy

1
Department of Physiology, Health Sciences University Center, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco 44340, Mexico
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Civil de Guadalajara “Fray Antonio Alcalde”, Guadalajara, Jalisco 44280, Mexico
3
Department of Ophthalmology, Specialties Hospital of the National Occidental Medical Center, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Guadalajara, Jalisco 44329, Mexico
4
Medical and Life Sciences Department, La Ciénega University Center, University of Guadalajara, Ocotlán, Jalisco 47810, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090891
Received: 25 July 2020 / Revised: 3 September 2020 / Accepted: 10 September 2020 / Published: 20 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Retinopathy)
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of visual impairment and morbidity worldwide, being the number one cause of blindness in people between 27 and 75 years old. It is estimated that ~191 million people will be diagnosed with this microvascular complication by 2030. Its pathogenesis is due to alterations in the retinal microvasculature as a result of a high concentration of glucose in the blood for a long time which generates numerous molecular changes like oxidative stress. Therefore, this narrative review aims to approach various biomarkers associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy. Focusing on the molecules showing promise as detection tools, among them we consider markers of oxidative stress (TAC, LPO, MDA, 4-HNE, SOD, GPx, and catalase), inflammation (IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, TNF-α, and MMPs), apoptosis (NF-kB, cyt-c, and caspases), and recently those that have to do with epigenetic modifications, their measurement in different biological matrices obtained from the eye, including importance, obtaining process, handling, and storage of these matrices in order to have the ability to detect the disease in its early stages. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; oxidative stress; antioxidants; biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy; metabolic memory; tear film; aqueous humor; vitreous humor diabetic retinopathy; oxidative stress; antioxidants; biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy; metabolic memory; tear film; aqueous humor; vitreous humor
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MDPI and ACS Style

López-Contreras, A.K.; Martínez-Ruiz, M.G.; Olvera-Montaño, C.; Robles-Rivera, R.R.; Arévalo-Simental, D.E.; Castellanos-González, J.A.; Hernández-Chávez, A.; Huerta-Olvera, S.G.; Cardona-Muñoz, E.G.; Rodríguez-Carrizalez, A.D. Importance of the Use of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Inflammatory Profile in Aqueous and Vitreous Humor in Diabetic Retinopathy. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 891. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090891

AMA Style

López-Contreras AK, Martínez-Ruiz MG, Olvera-Montaño C, Robles-Rivera RR, Arévalo-Simental DE, Castellanos-González JA, Hernández-Chávez A, Huerta-Olvera SG, Cardona-Muñoz EG, Rodríguez-Carrizalez AD. Importance of the Use of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Inflammatory Profile in Aqueous and Vitreous Humor in Diabetic Retinopathy. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(9):891. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090891

Chicago/Turabian Style

López-Contreras, Ana Karen, María Guadalupe Martínez-Ruiz, Cecilia Olvera-Montaño, Ricardo Raúl Robles-Rivera, Diana Esperanza Arévalo-Simental, José Alberto Castellanos-González, Abel Hernández-Chávez, Selene Guadalupe Huerta-Olvera, Ernesto German Cardona-Muñoz, and Adolfo Daniel Rodríguez-Carrizalez. 2020. "Importance of the Use of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Inflammatory Profile in Aqueous and Vitreous Humor in Diabetic Retinopathy" Antioxidants 9, no. 9: 891. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090891

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