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Article

A Higher Proportion of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) When Combined with Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in Omega-3 Dietary Supplements Provides Higher Antioxidant Effects in Human Retinal Cells

1
Department of Ophthalmology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
2
Retinal Pathologies and New Therapies Group, Experimental Ophthalmology Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
3
Navarra Institute for Health Research, IdiSNA, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
4
Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa Sanitaria en Enfermedades Oculares (Oftared), 31008 Pamplona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors also contributed equally to this work.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090828
Received: 31 July 2020 / Revised: 24 August 2020 / Accepted: 1 September 2020 / Published: 4 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Retinopathy)
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a key regulator of retinal function and is directly related to the transport, delivery, and metabolism of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA), in the retina. Due to their functions and location, RPE cells are constantly exposed to oxidative stress. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have shown to have antioxidant effects by different mechanisms. For this reason, we designed an in vitro study to compare 10 formulations of DHA and EPA supplements from different origins and combined in different proportions, evaluating their effect on cell viability, cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species production, and cell migration using ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, we assessed their ability to rescue RPE cells from the oxidative conditions seen in diabetic retinopathy. Our results showed that the different formulations of n3-PUFAs have a beneficial effect on cell viability and proliferation and are able to restore oxidative induced RPE damage. We observed that the n3-PUFA provided different results alone or combined in the same supplement. When combined, the best results were obtained in formulations that included a higher proportion of EPA than DHA. Moreover, n3-PUFA in the form of ethyl-esters had a worse performance when compared with triglycerides or phospholipid based formulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); oxidative stress; diabetic retinopathy; retinal pigment epithelium eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); oxidative stress; diabetic retinopathy; retinal pigment epithelium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saenz de Viteri, M.; Hernandez, M.; Bilbao-Malavé, V.; Fernandez-Robredo, P.; González-Zamora, J.; Garcia-Garcia, L.; Ispizua, N.; Recalde, S.; Garcia-Layana, A. A Higher Proportion of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) When Combined with Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in Omega-3 Dietary Supplements Provides Higher Antioxidant Effects in Human Retinal Cells. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 828. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090828

AMA Style

Saenz de Viteri M, Hernandez M, Bilbao-Malavé V, Fernandez-Robredo P, González-Zamora J, Garcia-Garcia L, Ispizua N, Recalde S, Garcia-Layana A. A Higher Proportion of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) When Combined with Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in Omega-3 Dietary Supplements Provides Higher Antioxidant Effects in Human Retinal Cells. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(9):828. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090828

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saenz de Viteri, Manuel; Hernandez, María; Bilbao-Malavé, Valentina; Fernandez-Robredo, Patricia; González-Zamora, Jorge; Garcia-Garcia, Laura; Ispizua, Nahia; Recalde, Sergio; Garcia-Layana, Alfredo. 2020. "A Higher Proportion of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) When Combined with Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in Omega-3 Dietary Supplements Provides Higher Antioxidant Effects in Human Retinal Cells" Antioxidants 9, no. 9: 828. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090828

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