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Open AccessArticle

Phenylethyl Isothiocyanate Extracted from Watercress By-Products with Aqueous Micellar Systems: Development and Optimisation

1
CBQF—Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina—Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Rua Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
2
i3S—Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
3
Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of University of Porto, Ipatimup, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
4
Medical Faculty, University of Porto, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080698
Received: 29 June 2020 / Revised: 30 July 2020 / Accepted: 31 July 2020 / Published: 3 August 2020
Phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) was reported as a useful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive agent. Due to technological and stability issues, it is necessary to be able to extract PEITC from its natural matrix (watercress) through sustainable and scalable methodologies. In this article, we explored, for the first time, the extractive capacity of aqueous micellar systems (AMSs) of two non-ionic surfactants. For this, we compared the AMSs with conventional organic solvents. Furthermore, we developed and optimised a new integral PEITC production and extraction process by a multifactorial experimental design. Finally, we analysed the antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ABTS methods. As results, the AMSs were able to extract PEITC at the same level as the tested conventional solvents. In addition, we optimised by response surface methodology the integrated process (2.0% m/m, 25.0 °C, pH 9.0), which was equally effective (ca. 2900 µg PEITC/g watercress), regardless of the surfactant used. The optimal extracts showed greater antioxidant capacity than pure PEITC, due to other antioxidant compounds extracted in the process. In conclusion, by the present work, we developed an innovative cost-effective and low environmental impact process for obtaining PEITC extracts from watercress by-products. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC); aqueous micellar systems; aliphatic alcohol ethoxylates; watercress by-products; response surface methodology; optimisation; antioxidant activity; Gastrocure phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC); aqueous micellar systems; aliphatic alcohol ethoxylates; watercress by-products; response surface methodology; optimisation; antioxidant activity; Gastrocure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Coscueta, E.R.; Reis, C.A.; Pintado, M. Phenylethyl Isothiocyanate Extracted from Watercress By-Products with Aqueous Micellar Systems: Development and Optimisation. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 698.

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