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Open AccessReview

Coenzyme Q10: Clinical Applications in Cardiovascular Diseases

by Alma Martelli 1,2,3,†, Lara Testai 1,2,3,†, Alessandro Colletti 4,5 and Arrigo F. G. Cicero 5,6,*
1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, 56120 Pisa, Italy
2
Interdepartmental Research Centre “Nutraceuticals and Food for Health (NUTRAFOOD)”, University of Pisa, 56120 Pisa, Italy
3
Interdepartmental Research Centre of Ageing, Biology and Pathology, University of Pisa, 56120 Pisa, Italy
4
Department of Science and Drug Technology, University of Turin, 10125 Turin, Italy
5
Italian Nutraceutical Society (SINut), Via Guelfa 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy
6
Medical and Surgical Sciences Department, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040341
Received: 25 March 2020 / Revised: 18 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 22 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Therapy in Cardiovascular Medicine: Bench to Bedside)
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a ubiquitous factor present in cell membranes and mitochondria, both in its reduced (ubiquinol) and oxidized (ubiquinone) forms. Its levels are high in organs with high metabolism such as the heart, kidneys, and liver because it acts as an energy transfer molecule but could be reduced by aging, genetic factors, drugs (e.g., statins), cardiovascular (CV) diseases, degenerative muscle disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. As CoQ10 is endowed with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features, useful to prevent free radical-induced damage and inflammatory signaling pathway activation, its depletion results in exacerbation of inflammatory processes. Therefore, exogenous CoQ10 supplementation might be useful as an adjuvant in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and myocardial infarction and in associated risk factors such as hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemias, and obesity. This review aims to summarize the current evidences on the use of CoQ10 supplementation as a therapeutic approach in cardiovascular diseases through the analysis of its clinical impact on patients’ health and quality of life. A substantial reduction of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers has been observed in several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) focused on several of the abovementioned diseases, even if more RCTs, involving a larger number of patients, will be necessary to strengthen these interesting findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: coenzyme Q10; ubiquinone; cardiovascular disease; risk factors; prevention; supplementation coenzyme Q10; ubiquinone; cardiovascular disease; risk factors; prevention; supplementation
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Martelli, A.; Testai, L.; Colletti, A.; Cicero, A.F.G. Coenzyme Q10: Clinical Applications in Cardiovascular Diseases. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 341.

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