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Article

The Role of Mitochondria in Brain Cell Protection from Ischaemia by Differently Prepared Propolis Extracts

1
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technologies, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Sukilėlių ave. 13, LT 50162 Kaunas, Lithuania
2
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Neuroscience Institute, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eivenių str. 4, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania
3
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Sukilėlių ave. 13, LT 50162 Kaunas, Lithuania
4
Laboratory of Preclinical Drug Investigation, Institute of Cardiology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Sukilėlių ave. 13, LT-50162 Kaunas, Lithuania
5
Department of Drug Technology and Social Pharmacy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Sukilėlių ave. 13, LT 50162 Kaunas, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(12), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121262
Received: 14 November 2020 / Revised: 6 December 2020 / Accepted: 11 December 2020 / Published: 12 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Brain)
Mitochondria are both the primary targets and mediators of ischaemic damage in brain cells. Insufficient oxygen causes reactive oxygen species that damage the mitochondria, leading to the loss of functionality and viability of highly energy-demanding neurons. We have recently found that aqueous (AqEP), polyethylene glycol-aqueous (Pg-AqEP) and ethanolic propolis extracts (EEP) can modulate mitochondria and ROS production in C6 cells of astrocytic origin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the extracts on viability, mitochondrial efficiency and superoxide generation, and inflammatory cytokine release in primary rat cerebellar neuronal-glial cell cultures affected by ischaemia (mimicked by hypoxia +/− deoxyglucose). AqEP and Pg-AqEP (15–60 µg/mL of phenolic compounds, or PC) significantly increased neuronal viability in ischaemia-treated cultures, and this was accompanied by a reduction in mitochondrial superoxide levels. Less extended protection against ischaemia-induced superoxide production and death was exhibited by 2 to 4 µg/mL of PC EEP. Both Pg-AqEP and Ag-EP (but not EEP) significantly protected the cultures from hypoxia-induced elevation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Only Pg-AqEP (but not AqEP or EEP) prevented hypoxia-induced loss of the mitochondrial basal and ATP-coupled respiration rate, and significantly increased the mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Summarising, the study revealed that hydrophilic propolis extracts might protect brain cells against ischaemic injury by decreasing the level of mitochondrial superoxide and preventing inflammatory cytokines, and, in the case of Pg-AqEP, by protecting mitochondrial function. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypoxia; neurons; astrocytes; microglia; mitochondrial superoxide; lactate dehydrogenase; oxygen consumption rate; aqueous propolis extract; polyethylene-aqueous propolis extract; ethanolic propolis extract hypoxia; neurons; astrocytes; microglia; mitochondrial superoxide; lactate dehydrogenase; oxygen consumption rate; aqueous propolis extract; polyethylene-aqueous propolis extract; ethanolic propolis extract
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MDPI and ACS Style

Balion, Z.; Ramanauskienė, K.; Jekabsone, A.; Majienė, D. The Role of Mitochondria in Brain Cell Protection from Ischaemia by Differently Prepared Propolis Extracts. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121262

AMA Style

Balion Z, Ramanauskienė K, Jekabsone A, Majienė D. The Role of Mitochondria in Brain Cell Protection from Ischaemia by Differently Prepared Propolis Extracts. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(12):1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121262

Chicago/Turabian Style

Balion, Zbigniev, Kristina Ramanauskienė, Aistė Jekabsone, and Daiva Majienė. 2020. "The Role of Mitochondria in Brain Cell Protection from Ischaemia by Differently Prepared Propolis Extracts" Antioxidants 9, no. 12: 1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121262

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