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Open AccessArticle

Hydroxytyrosol Decreases LPS- and α-Synuclein-Induced Microglial Activation In Vitro

Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Toxicología y Medicina Legal, Área de Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Profesor García González, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
MIB, Unité de RechercheŒnologie, EA4577, USC 1366 INRA, ISVV, Université de Bordeaux, 33882 Bordeaux, France
Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
Departamento de Fisiología Médica y Biofísica, Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 36;
Received: 27 November 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 31 December 2019
Neuroinflammation is a common feature shared by neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), and seems to play a key role in their development and progression. Microglia cells, the principal orchestrators of neuroinflammation, can be polarized in different phenotypes, which means they are able to have anti-inflammatory, pro-inflammatory, or neurodegenerative effects. Increasing evidence supports that the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern is related to the reduction of cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases. A considerable intake of plant foods, fish, and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), as well as a moderate consumption of red wine, all characteristic of the Mediterranean diet (MD), are behind these effects. These foods are especially rich in polyphenols, being the most relevant in the MD hydroxytyrosol (HT) and their derivatives present in EVOO, which have demonstrated a wide array of biological activities. Here, we demonstrate that HT is able to reduce the inflammation induced by two different stimuli: lipopolysaccharide and α-synuclein. We also study the possible molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of HT, including the study of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, and inflammasome. Our data support the use of HT to prevent the inflammation associated with PD and shed light into the relationship between MD and this neurological disorder. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxytyrosol; microglia; Mediterranean diet; inflammasome; MAPKs; lipopolysaccharide; α-synuclein hydroxytyrosol; microglia; Mediterranean diet; inflammasome; MAPKs; lipopolysaccharide; α-synuclein
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Gallardo-Fernández, M.; Hornedo-Ortega, R.; Alonso-Bellido, I.M.; Rodríguez-Gómez, J.A.; Troncoso, A.M.; García-Parrilla, M.C.; Venero, J.L.; Espinosa-Oliva, A.M.; de Pablos, R.M. Hydroxytyrosol Decreases LPS- and α-Synuclein-Induced Microglial Activation In Vitro. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 36.

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