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Antioxidant Activity of Thyme Waste Extract in O/W Emulsions

1
Laboratory of Physiology-Pharmacology-Environmental Health, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, BP 1796 Atlas, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdallah, Fez 30 000, Morocco
2
Departamento de Química e Farmácia, MeditBio, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
3
Laboratory of Phytochemistry, National Agency of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ANPMA). BP. 159, Principal, Taounate 34000, Morocco
4
Centre for Marine and Environmental Research (CIMA), Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
5
MeditBio/CEOT, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
6
Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR), Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080243
Received: 15 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
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PDF [5374 KB, uploaded 25 July 2019]
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Abstract

Thymus vulgaris (thyme) is an aromatic plant and its essential oil has been applied as antimicrobial and antioxidant due to the presence of phenolic compounds. However, after steam distillation, the deodorized plant material is rejected, despite the possible presence of bioactive compounds. Ethanolic thyme waste extract revealed the presence of benzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and sinapic acid. This waste thyme extract had the capacity for preventing the formation of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products in emulsions O/W (oil in water), constituted by diverse proportions of wheat and almond oils, without interfering with the viscosity parameters, for 10 weeks, at 37 °C. The increasing proportion of almond oil (≥50%) in the emulsion increases its resistance to oxidation, which is improved with the presence of an optimal concentration of tested thyme waste extract (0.02% and 0.04%). The waste thyme extract can, therefore, be used as an antioxidant either in food or pharmaceutical emulsions O/W, replacing the synthetic antioxidants. View Full-Text
Keywords: recycling aromatic waste; almond oil; wheaty germ oil; oxidative stability; response surface methodology recycling aromatic waste; almond oil; wheaty germ oil; oxidative stability; response surface methodology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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El-Guendouz, S.; Aazza, S.; Anahi Dandlen, S.; Majdoub, N.; Lyoussi, B.; Raposo, S.; Dulce Antunes, M.; Gomes, V.; Graça Miguel, M. Antioxidant Activity of Thyme Waste Extract in O/W Emulsions. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 243.

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