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Open AccessArticle

Arctium lappa Root Extract Prevents Lead-Induced Liver Injury by Attenuating Oxidative Stress and Inflammation, and Activating Akt/GSK-3β Signaling

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Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Common First Year Deanship, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Genetic and Cytology Department, National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt
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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
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Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
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Pharmaceutics Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514, Egypt
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120582
Received: 20 October 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 22 November 2019 / Published: 24 November 2019
Arctium lappa L (A. lappa) is a popular medicinal plant with promising hepatoprotective activity. This study investigated the protective effect of A. lappa root extract (ALRE) on lead (Pb) hepatotoxicity, pointing to its ability to modulate oxidative stress, inflammation, and protein kinase B/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β signaling. Rats received 50 mg/kg lead acetate (Pb(Ac)2) and 200 mg/kg ALRE or vitamin C (Vit. C) for 7 days, and blood and liver samples were collected. Pb(Ac)2 provoked hepatotoxicity manifested by elevated serum transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase, and decreased total protein. Histopathological alterations, including distorted lobular hepatic architecture, microsteatotic changes, congestion, and massive necrosis were observed in Pb(II)-induced rats. ALRE ameliorated liver function and prevented all histological alterations. Pb(II) increased hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation, and serum C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β. Cellular antioxidants, and Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation levels were decreased in the liver of Pb(II)-induced rats. ALRE ameliorated LPO, NO, caspase-3, DNA fragmentation and inflammatory mediators, and boosted antioxidant defenses in Pb(II)-induced rats. In addition, ALRE activated Akt and inhibited GSK-3β in the liver of Pb(II)-induced rats. In conclusion, ALRE inhibits liver injury in Pb(II)-intoxicated rats by attenuating oxidative injury and inflammation, and activation of Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.
Keywords: burdock; GSK-3β; lead; DNA damage; oxidative stress burdock; GSK-3β; lead; DNA damage; oxidative stress
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Alhusaini, A.; Fadda, L.; Hasan, I.H.; Ali, H.M.; El Orabi, N.F.; Badr, A.M.; Zakaria, E.; Alenazi, A.M.; Mahmoud, A.M. Arctium lappa Root Extract Prevents Lead-Induced Liver Injury by Attenuating Oxidative Stress and Inflammation, and Activating Akt/GSK-3β Signaling. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 582.

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