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Systematic Physical Exercise and Spirulina maxima Supplementation Improve Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Blood Lipid Profile: Correlations of a Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

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Medical and Psychology School, Autonomous University of Baja California, Tijuana 22390, Mexico
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Health Sciences Department, University of Sonora, Cajeme 85010, Mexico
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Sports School, Autonomous University of Baja California, Tijuana 22390, Mexico
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Physical Culture Sciences School, Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Chihuahua 32310, Mexico
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Biomedical Sciences Institute, Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Ciudad Juárez 32310, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110507
Received: 8 September 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Exercise)
Cardiovascular diseases are part of the highly preventable chronic diseases associated with changes in lifestyle. Within them, physical activity, low-fat and high-fiber diets are distinguished as the main support for prevention, even when supplementation with nutraceuticals has become a very common practice. Fifty-two young sedentary men with excess body weight (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg·m−2) were enrolled in a randomized-crossover controlled trial [six weeks of a systematic physical exercise with Spirulina maxima or placebo supplementation (4.5 g·day−1)]. Body composition, blood lipid profile, and maximal oxygen uptake were determined pre/post intervention. Pairwise comparisons showed a significant improvement (p < 0.01) on blood lipid profile in the group of exercise plus Spirulina maxima. Moreover, correlations of absolute changes of BMI, body fat percentage, blood lipids and maximal oxygen uptake were statistically significant (p < 0.01). These results indicate that the Spirulina maxima supplementation could be acting in a synergistic way with exercise due to the enhanced effects on body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lipid profile. This phenomenon should be considered to reduce risk of cardiovascular disorders. Trial registration: Clinical Trials, NCT02837666 (July 19, 2016). View Full-Text
Keywords: nutraceuticals; antioxidants; Arthrospira maxima; physical exercise; obesity; randomized trial nutraceuticals; antioxidants; Arthrospira maxima; physical exercise; obesity; randomized trial
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Hernández-Lepe, M.A.; Olivas-Aguirre, F.J.; Gómez-Miranda, L.M.; Hernández-Torres, R.P.; Manríquez-Torres, J.J.; Ramos-Jiménez, A. Systematic Physical Exercise and Spirulina maxima Supplementation Improve Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Blood Lipid Profile: Correlations of a Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 507.

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