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Article

Impact of Ascorbate—Glutathione Cycle Components on the Effectiveness of Embryogenesis Induction in Isolated Microspore Cultures of Barley and Triticale

1
The Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Kraków, Poland
2
Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Masayuki Fujita and Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081254
Received: 9 June 2021 / Revised: 30 July 2021 / Accepted: 3 August 2021 / Published: 5 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Approaches in Enhancing Antioxidant Defense in Plants)
Enhanced antioxidant defence plays an essential role in plant survival under stress conditions. However, excessive antioxidant activity sometimes suppresses the signal necessary for the initiation of the desired biological reactions. One such example is microspore embryogenesis (ME)—a process of embryo-like structure formation triggered by stress in immature male gametophytes. The study focused on the role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defence in triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) microspore reprogramming. ME was induced through various stress treatments of tillers and its effectiveness was analysed in terms of ascorbate and glutathione contents, total activity of low molecular weight antioxidants and activities of glutathione–ascorbate cycle enzymes. The most effective treatment for both species was a combination of low temperature and exogenous application of 0.3 M mannitol, with or without 0.3 mM reduced glutathione. The applied treatments induced genotype-specific defence responses. In triticale, both ascorbate and glutathione were associated with ME induction, though the role of glutathione did not seem to be related to its function as a reducing agent. In barley, effective ME was accompanied by an accumulation of ascorbate and high activity of enzymes regulating its redox status, without direct relation to glutathione content. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant defence; ascorbate; glutathione; microspore embryogenesis; reactive oxygen species; Hordeum vulgare; ×Triticosecale Wittm. antioxidant defence; ascorbate; glutathione; microspore embryogenesis; reactive oxygen species; Hordeum vulgare; ×Triticosecale Wittm.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Żur, I.; Kopeć, P.; Surówka, E.; Dubas, E.; Krzewska, M.; Nowicka, A.; Janowiak, F.; Juzoń, K.; Janas, A.; Barna, B.; Fodor, J. Impact of Ascorbate—Glutathione Cycle Components on the Effectiveness of Embryogenesis Induction in Isolated Microspore Cultures of Barley and Triticale. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1254. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081254

AMA Style

Żur I, Kopeć P, Surówka E, Dubas E, Krzewska M, Nowicka A, Janowiak F, Juzoń K, Janas A, Barna B, Fodor J. Impact of Ascorbate—Glutathione Cycle Components on the Effectiveness of Embryogenesis Induction in Isolated Microspore Cultures of Barley and Triticale. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(8):1254. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081254

Chicago/Turabian Style

Żur, Iwona, Przemysław Kopeć, Ewa Surówka, Ewa Dubas, Monika Krzewska, Anna Nowicka, Franciszek Janowiak, Katarzyna Juzoń, Agnieszka Janas, Balázs Barna, and József Fodor. 2021. "Impact of Ascorbate—Glutathione Cycle Components on the Effectiveness of Embryogenesis Induction in Isolated Microspore Cultures of Barley and Triticale" Antioxidants 10, no. 8: 1254. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081254

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