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Article

Vitamin A and E Homologues Impacting the Fate of Acrylamide in Equimolar Asparagine-Glucose Model System

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Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Product Development and Advisory Services Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William L. Stone
Antioxidants 2021, 10(7), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10070993
Received: 4 May 2021 / Revised: 14 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 22 June 2021
This study aims to evaluate the influence of Vitamin A and E homologues toward acrylamide in equimolar asparagine-glucose model system. Vitamin A homologue as β-carotene (BC) and five Vitamin E homologues, i.e., α-tocopherol (AT), δ-tocopherol (DT), α-tocotrienol (ATT), γ-tocotrienol (GTT), and δ-tocotrienol (DTT), were tested at different concentrations (1 and 10 µmol) and subjected to heating at 160 °C for 20 min before acrylamide quantification. At lower concentrations (1 µmol; 431, 403, 411 ppm, respectively), AT, DT, and GTT significantly increase acrylamide. Except for DT, enhancing concentration to 10 µmol (5370, 4310, 4250, 3970, and 4110 ppm, respectively) caused significant acrylamide formation. From linear regression model, acrylamide concentration demonstrated significant depreciation over concentration increase in AT (Beta = −83.0, R2 = 0.652, p ≤ 0.05) and DT (Beta = −71.6, R2 = 0.930, p ≤ 0.05). This study indicates that different Vitamin A and E homologue concentrations could determine their functionality either as antioxidants or pro-oxidants. View Full-Text
Keywords: acrylamide; Vitamin A; Vitamin E; asparagine-glucose model system; heating acrylamide; Vitamin A; Vitamin E; asparagine-glucose model system; heating
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuek, S.L.; Tarmizi, A.H.A.; Abd Razak, R.A.; Jinap, S.; Sanny, M. Vitamin A and E Homologues Impacting the Fate of Acrylamide in Equimolar Asparagine-Glucose Model System. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 993. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10070993

AMA Style

Kuek SL, Tarmizi AHA, Abd Razak RA, Jinap S, Sanny M. Vitamin A and E Homologues Impacting the Fate of Acrylamide in Equimolar Asparagine-Glucose Model System. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(7):993. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10070993

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kuek, Su L., Azmil H.A. Tarmizi, Raznim A. Abd Razak, Selamat Jinap, and Maimunah Sanny. 2021. "Vitamin A and E Homologues Impacting the Fate of Acrylamide in Equimolar Asparagine-Glucose Model System" Antioxidants 10, no. 7: 993. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10070993

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