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Review

Protein Engineering of Electron Transfer Components from Electroactive Geobacter Bacteria

1
UCIBIO, Chemistry Department, NOVA School of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
2
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Avenida da República (EAN), 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Julie A. Maupin-Furlow, Luis M. Mateos and Michal Letek
Antioxidants 2021, 10(6), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060844
Received: 2 April 2021 / Revised: 2 May 2021 / Accepted: 20 May 2021 / Published: 25 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Biology in Microorganisms)
Electrogenic microorganisms possess unique redox biological features, being capable of transferring electrons to the cell exterior and converting highly toxic compounds into nonhazardous forms. These microorganisms have led to the development of Microbial Electrochemical Technologies (METs), which include applications in the fields of bioremediation and bioenergy production. The optimization of these technologies involves efforts from several different disciplines, ranging from microbiology to materials science. Geobacter bacteria have served as a model for understanding the mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of extracellular electron transfer, which is highly dependent on a multitude of multiheme cytochromes (MCs). MCs are, therefore, logical targets for rational protein engineering to improve the extracellular electron transfer rates of these bacteria. However, the presence of several heme groups complicates the detailed redox characterization of MCs. In this Review, the main characteristics of electroactive Geobacter bacteria, their potential to develop microbial electrochemical technologies and the main features of MCs are initially highlighted. This is followed by a detailed description of the current methodologies that assist the characterization of the functional redox networks in MCs. Finally, it is discussed how this information can be explored to design optimal Geobacter-mutated strains with improved capabilities in METs. View Full-Text
Keywords: electroactive microorganisms; Microbial Electrochemical Technologies (METs); bioenergy production; bioremediation; protein engineering; multiheme cytochromes; redox characterization; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) electroactive microorganisms; Microbial Electrochemical Technologies (METs); bioenergy production; bioremediation; protein engineering; multiheme cytochromes; redox characterization; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernandes, T.M.; Morgado, L.; Turner, D.L.; Salgueiro, C.A. Protein Engineering of Electron Transfer Components from Electroactive Geobacter Bacteria. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 844. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060844

AMA Style

Fernandes TM, Morgado L, Turner DL, Salgueiro CA. Protein Engineering of Electron Transfer Components from Electroactive Geobacter Bacteria. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(6):844. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060844

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernandes, Tomás M., Leonor Morgado, David L. Turner, and Carlos A. Salgueiro 2021. "Protein Engineering of Electron Transfer Components from Electroactive Geobacter Bacteria" Antioxidants 10, no. 6: 844. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060844

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