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Article

Exploring Early Detection of Frailty Syndrome in Older Adults: Evaluation of Oxi-Immune Markers, Clinical Parameters and Modifiable Risk Factors

1
EPIUnit—Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Taipas 135, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
2
Environmental Health Department, National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Rua Alexandre Herculano 321, 4000-055 Porto, Portugal
3
School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (ICBAS), University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
4
Laboratory for Integrative and Translational Research in Population Health (ITR), Rua das Taipas 135, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
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Centro de Investigaciones Científicas Avanzadas (CICA), Grupo DICOMOSA, Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación, Campus Elviña s/n, Universidade da Coruña, 15071 A Coruña, Spain
6
Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC), AE CICA-INIBIC. Oza, 15071 A Coruña, Spain
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Centro de Investigaciones Científicas Avanzadas (CICA), Grupo NanoToxGen, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus A Zapateira s/n, Universidade da Coruña, 15071 A Coruña, Spain
8
Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
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Department of Laboratory Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
10
Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sander Bekeschus and Ross Grant
Antioxidants 2021, 10(12), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10121975
Received: 11 October 2021 / Revised: 22 November 2021 / Accepted: 2 December 2021 / Published: 10 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tryptophan Metabolism in Health and Disease)
Ageing is accompanied with a decline in several physiological systems. Frailty is an age-related syndrome correlated to the loss of homeostasis and increased vulnerability to stressors, which is associated with increase in the risk of disability, comorbidity, hospitalisation, and death in older adults. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between frailty syndrome, immune activation, and oxidative stress. Serum concentrations of vitamins A and E were also evaluated, as well as inflammatory biomarkers (CRP and IL-6) and oxidative DNA levels. A group of Portuguese older adults (≥65 years old) was engaged in this study and classified according to Fried’s frailty phenotype. Significant increases in the inflammatory mediators (CRP and IL-6), neopterin levels, kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp), and phenylalanine to tyrosine ratio (Phe/Tyr), and significant decreases in Trp and Tyr concentrations were observed in the presence of frailty. IL-6, neopterin, and Kyn/Trp showed potential as predictable biomarkers of frailty syndrome. Several clinical parameters such as nutrition, dependency scales, and polypharmacy were related to frailty and, consequently, may influence the associations observed. Results obtained show a progressive immune activation and production of pro-inflammatory molecules in the presence of frailty, agreeing with the inflammageing model. Future research should include different dimensions of frailty, including psychological, social, biological, and environmental factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: frailty; oxi-immune markers; CRP and IL-6; Kyn/Trp; neopterin; Phe/Tyr; nitrite; oxidative DNA damage; vitamin A and vitamin E; modifiable risk factors frailty; oxi-immune markers; CRP and IL-6; Kyn/Trp; neopterin; Phe/Tyr; nitrite; oxidative DNA damage; vitamin A and vitamin E; modifiable risk factors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Teixeira-Gomes, A.; Laffon, B.; Valdiglesias, V.; Gostner, J.M.; Felder, T.; Costa, C.; Madureira, J.; Fuchs, D.; Teixeira, J.P.; Costa, S. Exploring Early Detection of Frailty Syndrome in Older Adults: Evaluation of Oxi-Immune Markers, Clinical Parameters and Modifiable Risk Factors. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1975. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10121975

AMA Style

Teixeira-Gomes A, Laffon B, Valdiglesias V, Gostner JM, Felder T, Costa C, Madureira J, Fuchs D, Teixeira JP, Costa S. Exploring Early Detection of Frailty Syndrome in Older Adults: Evaluation of Oxi-Immune Markers, Clinical Parameters and Modifiable Risk Factors. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(12):1975. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10121975

Chicago/Turabian Style

Teixeira-Gomes, Armanda, Blanca Laffon, Vanessa Valdiglesias, Johanna M. Gostner, Thomas Felder, Carla Costa, Joana Madureira, Dietmar Fuchs, João P. Teixeira, and Solange Costa. 2021. "Exploring Early Detection of Frailty Syndrome in Older Adults: Evaluation of Oxi-Immune Markers, Clinical Parameters and Modifiable Risk Factors" Antioxidants 10, no. 12: 1975. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10121975

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