This report describes an experimental procedure for constructing integrated lipid, carbohydrate, and protein microarrays. In essence, it prints liposomes on nitrocellulose-coated micro-glass slides, a biochip substrate for spotting protein and carbohydrate microarrays, and the substances that can form liposomes (homo
-liposomes) or can be incorporated into liposomes (hetero
-liposomes) are suitable for microarray construction using existing microarray spotting devices. Importantly, this technology allows simultaneous detection of serum antibody activities among the three major classes of antigens, i.e.
, lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. The potential of this technology is illustrated by its use in revealing a broad-spectrum of pre-existing anti-lipid antibodies in blood circulation and monitoring the epitope spreading of autoantibody reactivities among protein, carbohydrate, and lipid antigens in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).
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