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Astrocytic Response to Acutely- and Chronically-Implanted Microelectrode Arrays in the Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) Brain

Edmond and Lily Safra International Institute of Neuroscience, Santos Dumont Institute, Macaíba, RN 59280-000, Brazil
Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN 59078-970, Brazil
Brain Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN 59056-450, Brazil
Institute for Science and Technology of Water (ICTA), Federal University of Western Pará, Santarém, Pará 68040-255, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(2), 19;
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Neuroglia)
PDF [1005 KB, uploaded 23 January 2019]


Microelectrode implants are an important tool in neuroscience research and in developing brain–machine interfaces. Data from rodents have consistently shown that astrocytes are recruited to the area surrounding implants, forming a glial scar that increases electrode impedance and reduces chronic utility. However, studies in non-human primates are scarce, with none to date in marmosets. We used glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining to characterize the acute and chronic response of the marmoset brain to microelectrodes. By using densitometry, we showed that marmoset astrocytes surround brain implants and that a glial scar is formed over time, with significant increase in the chronic condition relative to the acute condition animal. View Full-Text
Keywords: gliosis; marmoset; microelectrode; astrocyte gliosis; marmoset; microelectrode; astrocyte

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Budoff, S.A.; Yano, K.M.; de Mesquita, F.C.; Doerl, J.G.; de Santana, M.B.; Nascimento, M.S.L.; Kunicki, A.C.B.; de Araújo, M.F.P. Astrocytic Response to Acutely- and Chronically-Implanted Microelectrode Arrays in the Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) Brain. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 19.

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