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Open AccessArticle

Electrical Stimulation of C6 Glia-Precursor Cells In Vitro Differentially Modulates Gene Expression Related to Chronic Pain Pathways

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Millennium Pain Center, Bloomington, IL 61704, USA
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Department of Psychology, Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, IL 61701, USA
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Department of Chemistry, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790, USA
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Department of Biology, Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, IL 61701, USA
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South Texas Orthopaedic Research Institute, Laredo, TX 78045, USA
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Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
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College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign-Urbana, IL 61801, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(11), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9110303
Received: 24 September 2019 / Revised: 27 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms Underlying Alleviation of Pain)
Glial cells comprise the majority of cells in the central nervous system and exhibit diverse functions including the development of persistent neuropathic pain. While earlier theories have proposed that the applied electric field specifically affects neurons, it has been demonstrated that electrical stimulation (ES) of neural tissue modulates gene expression of the glial cells. This study examines the effect of ES on the expression of eight genes related to oxidative stress and neuroprotection in cultured rodent glioma cells. Concentric bipolar electrodes under seven different ES types were used to stimulate cells for 30 min in the presence and absence of extracellular glutamate. ES consisted of rectangular pulses at 50 Hz in varying proportions of anodic and cathodic phases. Real-time reverse-transcribed quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine gene expression using the ∆∆Cq method. The results demonstrate that glutamate has a significant effect on gene expression in both stimulated and non-stimulated groups. Furthermore, stimulation parameters have differential effects on gene expression, both in the presence and absence of glutamate. ES has an effect on glial cell gene expression that is dependent on waveform composition. Optimization of ES therapy for chronic pain applications can be enhanced by this understanding. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrical stimulation; oxidative stress; glial cells; gene expression; cell culture electrical stimulation; oxidative stress; glial cells; gene expression; cell culture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vallejo, R.; Platt, D.C.; Rink, J.A.; Jones, M.A.; Kelley, C.A.; Gupta, A.; Cass, C.L.; Eichenberg, K.; Vallejo, A.; Smith, W.J.; Benyamin, R.; Cedeño, D.L. Electrical Stimulation of C6 Glia-Precursor Cells In Vitro Differentially Modulates Gene Expression Related to Chronic Pain Pathways. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 303.

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