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The Efficacy of Transcranial Current Stimulation Techniques to Modulate Resting-State EEG, to Affect Vigilance and to Promote Sleepiness

Department of Psychology, University of Rome Sapienza, 00185 Rome, Italy
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Brain Sci. 2018, 8(7), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8070137
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation Applications)
Transcranial Current Stimulations (tCSs) are non-invasive brain stimulation techniques which modulate cortical excitability and spontaneous brain activity by the application of weak electric currents through the scalp, in a safe, economic, and well-tolerated manner. The direction of the cortical effects mainly depend on the polarity and the waveform of the applied current. The aim of the present work is to provide a broad overview of recent studies in which tCS has been applied to modulate sleepiness, sleep, and vigilance, evaluating the efficacy of different stimulation techniques and protocols. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in these stimulations and their ability to affect arousal and sleep dynamics. Furthermore, we critically review works that, by means of stimulating sleep/vigilance patterns, in the sense of enhancing or disrupting them, intended to ameliorate several clinical conditions. The examined literature shows the efficacy of tCSs in modulating sleep and arousal pattern, likely acting on the top-down pathway of sleep regulation. Finally, we discuss the potential application in clinical settings of this neuromodulatory technique as a therapeutic tool for pathological conditions characterized by alterations in sleep and arousal domains and for sleep disorders per se. View Full-Text
Keywords: transcranial Current Stimulation (tCS); transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS); transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS); oscillatory transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (osc-tDCS); EEG; sleep; sleepiness; vigilance; sleep disorder; clinical application transcranial Current Stimulation (tCS); transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS); transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS); oscillatory transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (osc-tDCS); EEG; sleep; sleepiness; vigilance; sleep disorder; clinical application
MDPI and ACS Style

Annarumma, L.; D’Atri, A.; Alfonsi, V.; De Gennaro, L. The Efficacy of Transcranial Current Stimulation Techniques to Modulate Resting-State EEG, to Affect Vigilance and to Promote Sleepiness. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 137.

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