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Brain Sci. 2018, 8(5), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8050083

The Effects of Trauma, with or without PTSD, on the Transgenerational DNA Methylation Alterations in Human Offsprings

1
Department of Psychiatry & Health Behavior, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
2
Academic Affairs, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
3
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
4
Department of Population Health Sciences, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
5
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, 6202 AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract

Exposure to psychological trauma is a strong risk factor for several debilitating disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Besides the impact on mental well-being and behavior in the exposed individuals, it has been suggested that psychological trauma can affect the biology of the individuals, and even have biological and behavioral consequences on the offspring of exposed individuals. While knowledge of possible epigenetic underpinnings of the association between exposure to trauma and risk of PTSD has been discussed in several reviews, it remains to be established whether trauma-induced epigenetic modifications can be passed from traumatized individuals to subsequent generations of offspring. The aim of this paper is to review the emerging literature on evidence of transgenerational inheritance due to trauma exposure on the epigenetic mechanism of DNA methylation in humans. Our review found an accumulating amount of evidence of an enduring effect of trauma exposure to be passed to offspring transgenerationally via the epigenetic inheritance mechanism of DNA methylation alterations and has the capacity to change the expression of genes and the metabolome. This manuscript summarizes and critically reviews the relevant original human studies in this area. Thus, it provides an overview of where we stand, and a clearer vision of where we should go in terms of future research directions. View Full-Text
Keywords: psychological trauma; post-traumatic stress disorder; epigenomics; DNA methylation; prevention; treatment; transgenerational effect; transgenerational inheritance psychological trauma; post-traumatic stress disorder; epigenomics; DNA methylation; prevention; treatment; transgenerational effect; transgenerational inheritance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Youssef, N.A.; Lockwood, L.; Su, S.; Hao, G.; Rutten, B.P.F. The Effects of Trauma, with or without PTSD, on the Transgenerational DNA Methylation Alterations in Human Offsprings. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 83.

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