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Multiple Sclerosis: Immunopathology and Treatment Update

Centre for Chronic Disease, College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne VIC 3030, Australia
Medical Department, Novartis (Hellas) SACI, Metamorphosis, Athens 14452, Greece
Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Rio, Patras 26500, Greece
Vianex S.A., Metamorphosis, Attikis, Athens 14451, Greece
ELDrug S.A., Patras Science Park, Platani, Patras 26504, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Evanthia Bernitsas
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(7), 78;
Received: 25 June 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathophysiology and Imaging Diagnosis of Demyelinating Disorders)
PDF [1494 KB, uploaded 11 July 2017]


The treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has changed over the last 20 years. All immunotherapeutic drugs target relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and it still remains a medical challenge in MS to develop a treatment for progressive forms. The most common injectable disease-modifying therapies in RRMS include β-interferons 1a or 1b and glatiramer acetate. However, one of the major challenges of injectable disease-modifying therapies has been poor treatment adherence with approximately 50% of patients discontinuing the therapy within the first year. Herein, we go back to the basics to understand the immunopathophysiology of MS to gain insights in the development of new improved drug treatments. We present current disease-modifying therapies (interferons, glatiramer acetate, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, fingolimod, mitoxantrone), humanized monoclonal antibodies (natalizumab, ofatumumab, ocrelizumab, alemtuzumab, daclizumab) and emerging immune modulating approaches (stem cells, DNA vaccines, nanoparticles, altered peptide ligands) for the treatment of MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; immunotherapy; drug delivery; vaccine multiple sclerosis; immunotherapy; drug delivery; vaccine

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Dargahi, N.; Katsara, M.; Tselios, T.; Androutsou, M.-E.; De Courten, M.; Matsoukas, J.; Apostolopoulos, V. Multiple Sclerosis: Immunopathology and Treatment Update. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 78.

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