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Open AccessArticle

Validation of Acoustic Wave Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

School of Biological Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272, USA
Department of Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330, USA
California Stem Cell Treatment Center, Rancho Mirage, CA 92270, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: James M. Gurley and Brian D. Greenwald
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(6), 59;
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
Background: This study looked to validate the acoustic wave technology of the Storz-D-Actor that inflicted a consistent closed-head, traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. We studied a range of single pulse pressures administered to the rats and observed the resulting decline in motor skills and memory. Histology was observed to measure and confirm the injury insult. Methods: Four different acoustic wave pressures were studied using a single pulse: 0, 3.4, 4.2 and 5.0 bar (n = 10 rats per treatment group). The pulse was administered to the left frontal cortex. Rotarod tests were used to monitor the rats’ motor skills while the water maze test was used to monitor memory deficits. The rats were then sacrificed ten days post-treatment for histological analysis of TBI infarct size. Results: The behavioral tests showed that acoustic wave technology administered an effective insult causing significant decreases in motor abilities and memory. Histology showed dose-dependent damage to the cortex infarct areas only. Conclusions: This study illustrates that the Storz D-Actor effectively induces a repeatable TBI infarct, avoiding the invasive procedure of a craniotomy often used in TBI research. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic brain injury (TBI); mild TBI; acoustic shockwave TBI; closed-head TBI; concussion traumatic brain injury (TBI); mild TBI; acoustic shockwave TBI; closed-head TBI; concussion
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Berman, S.; Uhlendorf, T.L.; Mills, D.K.; Lander, E.B.; Berman, M.H.; Cohen, R.W. Validation of Acoustic Wave Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 59.

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