Next Article in Journal
Sex-Specific Brain Deficits in Auditory Processing in an Animal Model of Cocaine-Related Schizophrenic Disorders
Next Article in Special Issue
Endovascular Thrombectomy Following Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Single-Center Case Series and Critical Review of the Literature
Previous Article in Journal
Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia II: H.M.’s Spared versus Impaired Encoding Categories
Previous Article in Special Issue
Non-Coding RNAs as Potential Neuroprotectants against Ischemic Brain Injury
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessConcept Paper
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(2), 460-503;

A Program for Solving the Brain Ischemia Problem

Department of Physiology, Wayne State University, 4116 Scott Hall, 540 E. Canfield, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
Received: 15 January 2013 / Revised: 23 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 8 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotection against Ischemic Brain Injury)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3273 KB, uploaded 9 April 2013]   |  


Our recently described nonlinear dynamical model of cell injury is here applied to the problems of brain ischemia and neuroprotection. We discuss measurement of global brain ischemia injury dynamics by time course analysis. Solutions to proposed experiments are simulated using hypothetical values for the model parameters. The solutions solve the global brain ischemia problem in terms of “master bifurcation diagrams” that show all possible outcomes for arbitrary durations of all lethal cerebral blood flow (CBF) decrements. The global ischemia master bifurcation diagrams: (1) can map to a single focal ischemia insult, and (2) reveal all CBF decrements susceptible to neuroprotection. We simulate measuring a neuroprotectant by time course analysis, which revealed emergent nonlinear effects that set dynamical limits on neuroprotection. Using over-simplified stroke geometry, we calculate a theoretical maximum protection of approximately 50% recovery. We also calculate what is likely to be obtained in practice and obtain 38% recovery; a number close to that often reported in the literature. The hypothetical examples studied here illustrate the use of the nonlinear cell injury model as a fresh avenue of approach that has the potential, not only to solve the brain ischemia problem, but also to advance the technology of neuroprotection. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain ischemia; neuroprotection; nonlinear dynamics; bistability; cell injury brain ischemia; neuroprotection; nonlinear dynamics; bistability; cell injury

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

DeGracia, D.J. A Program for Solving the Brain Ischemia Problem. Brain Sci. 2013, 3, 460-503.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Brain Sci. EISSN 2076-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top