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Common Misconceptions about the Phonological Deficit Theory of Dyslexia

Insights into Dyslexia Genetics Research from the Last Two Decades

Department of Educational Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9AJ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Pia Bucci
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(1), 27;
Received: 29 November 2021 / Revised: 21 December 2021 / Accepted: 23 December 2021 / Published: 26 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurobiological Basis of Developmental Dyslexia)
Dyslexia, a specific reading disability, is a common (up to 10% of children) and highly heritable (~70%) neurodevelopmental disorder. Behavioral and molecular genetic approaches are aimed towards dissecting its significant genetic component. In the proposed review, we will summarize advances in twin and molecular genetic research from the past 20 years. First, we will briefly outline the clinical and educational presentation and epidemiology of dyslexia. Next, we will summarize results from twin studies, followed by molecular genetic research (e.g., genome-wide association studies (GWASs)). In particular, we will highlight converging key insights from genetic research. (1) Dyslexia is a highly polygenic neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic architecture. (2) Dyslexia categories share a large proportion of genetics with continuously distributed measures of reading skills, with shared genetic risks also seen across development. (3) Dyslexia genetic risks are shared with those implicated in many other neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., developmental language disorder and dyscalculia). Finally, we will discuss the implications and future directions. As the diversity of genetic studies continues to increase through international collaborate efforts, we will highlight the challenges in advances of genetics discoveries in this field. View Full-Text
Keywords: dyslexia; genetics; twin studies; molecular genetic studies dyslexia; genetics; twin studies; molecular genetic studies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Erbeli, F.; Rice, M.; Paracchini, S. Insights into Dyslexia Genetics Research from the Last Two Decades. Brain Sci. 2022, 12, 27.

AMA Style

Erbeli F, Rice M, Paracchini S. Insights into Dyslexia Genetics Research from the Last Two Decades. Brain Sciences. 2022; 12(1):27.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Erbeli, Florina, Marianne Rice, and Silvia Paracchini. 2022. "Insights into Dyslexia Genetics Research from the Last Two Decades" Brain Sciences 12, no. 1: 27.

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