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Article

Patterns of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Video Recording Study. Preliminary Report

1
Autism Research Unit, “Villa Santa Maria” Foundation, 22038 Tavernerio, Italy
2
Neurorehabilitation Research Laboratory, Department of Neurological and Rehabilitation Sciences, IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, 00163 Rome, Italy
3
School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy
4
School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3G 1Y5, Canada
5
Department of Human Sciences and Promotion of the Quality of Life, San Raffaele University, 00163 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Eugenio Aguglia and Laura Fusar-Poli
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(6), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060678
Received: 16 March 2021 / Revised: 19 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorder)
Background: Several instruments have been proposed to investigate restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Systematic video observations may overcome questionnaire and interview limitations to investigate RRBs. This study aimed to analyze stereotypic patterns through video recordings and to determine the correlation between the number and appearance of RRBs to ASD severity. Methods: Twenty health professionals wearing a body cam recorded 780 specific RRBs during everyday activities of 67 individuals with ASD (mean age: 14.2 ± 3.72 years) for three months. Each stereotypy was classified according to its complexity pattern (i.e., simple or complex) based on body parts and sensory channels involved. Results: The RRBs spectrum for each subject ranged from one to 33 different patterns (mean: 11.6 ± 6.82). Individuals with a lower number of stereotypies shown a lower ASD severity compared to subjects with a higher number of stereotypies (p = 0.044). No significant differences were observed between individuals exhibiting simple (n = 40) and complex patterns (n = 27) of stereotypies on ASD severity, age, sex, and the number of stereotypes. Conclusions: This study represents the first attempt to systematically document expression patterns of RRBs with a data-driven approach. This may provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology and management of RRBs. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; repetitive behaviors; classification; real-world data; video recording; motor stereotypies; rehabilitation autism spectrum disorder; repetitive behaviors; classification; real-world data; video recording; motor stereotypies; rehabilitation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grossi, E.; Caminada, E.; Goffredo, M.; Vescovo, B.; Castrignano, T.; Piscitelli, D.; Valagussa, G.; Franceschini, M.; Vanzulli, F. Patterns of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Video Recording Study. Preliminary Report. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 678. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060678

AMA Style

Grossi E, Caminada E, Goffredo M, Vescovo B, Castrignano T, Piscitelli D, Valagussa G, Franceschini M, Vanzulli F. Patterns of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Video Recording Study. Preliminary Report. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(6):678. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060678

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grossi, Enzo, Elisa Caminada, Michela Goffredo, Beatrice Vescovo, Tristana Castrignano, Daniele Piscitelli, Giulio Valagussa, Marco Franceschini, and Franco Vanzulli. 2021. "Patterns of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Video Recording Study. Preliminary Report" Brain Sciences 11, no. 6: 678. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060678

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