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Open AccessReview

Systematic Review of Level 1 and Level 2 Screening Tools for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

by Serena Petrocchi 1,2,3,*,†, Annalisa Levante 2,4,† and Flavia Lecciso 2,4
1
Institute of Communication and Health, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Via Buffi 13, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland
2
Lab of Applied Psychology and Intervention, Department of History, Society and Human Studies, University of Salento, Via di Valesio, 73100 Lecce, Italy
3
Applied Research Division for Cognitive and Psychological Science, IRCCS European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milano, Italy
4
Department of History, Society and Human Studies, University of Salento, Via di Valesio, 73100 Lecce, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(3), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10030180
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 16 March 2020 / Accepted: 17 March 2020 / Published: 19 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Autism Research)
The present study provides a systematic review of level 1 and level 2 screening tools for the early detection of autism under 24 months of age and an evaluation of the psychometric and measurement properties of their studies. Methods: Seven databases (e.g., Scopus, EBSCOhost Research Database) were screened and experts in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) field were questioned; Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and Consensus-based Standard for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist were applied. Results: the study included 52 papers and 16 measures; most of them were questionnaires, and the Modified-CHecklist for Autism in Toddler (M-CHAT) was the most extensively tested. The measures’ strengths (analytical evaluation of methodological quality according to COSMIN) and limitations (in term of Negative Predictive Value, Positive Predictive Value, sensitivity, and specificity) were described; the quality of the studies, assessed with the application of the COSMIN checklist, highlighted the necessity of further validation studies for all the measures. According to COSMIN results, the M-CHAT, First Years Inventory (FYI), and Quantitative-CHecklist for Autism in Toddler (Q-CHAT) seem to be promising measures that may be applied systematically by health professionals in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism; level 1 and level 2 screening tools; systematic review; COSMIN; PRISMA autism; level 1 and level 2 screening tools; systematic review; COSMIN; PRISMA
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Petrocchi, S.; Levante, A.; Lecciso, F. Systematic Review of Level 1 and Level 2 Screening Tools for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 180.

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