Next Article in Journal
Tunable Silver Nanoparticle Arrays by Hot Embossing and Sputter Deposition for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering
Previous Article in Journal
Coupled Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbine Jacket Structures with Pile-Soil-Structure Interaction Using FAST v8 and X-SEA
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Weighting Average Functions as a Simplification of the Radiative Transfer Simulation in Vertically Inhomogeneous Eutrophic Waters

by 1 and 1,2,*
1
Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China
2
Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Regional Modern Agriculture & Environmental Protection, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai’an 223300, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081635
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 31 March 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Optics and Lasers)
Current water color remote sensing algorithms typically do not consider the vertical variations of phytoplankton. Ecolight with a radiative transfer program was used to simulate the underwater light field of vertical inhomogeneous waters based on the optical properties of a eutrophic lake (i.e., Lake Chaohu, China). Results showed that the vertical distribution of chlorophyll-a (Chla(z)) can considerably affect spectrum shape and magnitude of apparent optical properties (AOPs), including subsurface remote sensing reflectance in water (rrs(λ, z)) and the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kx(λ, z)). The vertical variations of Chla(z) changed the spectrum shapes of rrs(λ, z) at the green and red wavelengths with a maximum value at approximately 590 nm, and changed the Kx(λ, z) from blue to red wavelength range with no obvious spectral variation. The difference between rrs(λ, z) at depth z m and its asymptotic value (Δrrs(λ, z)) could reach to ~78% in highly stratified waters. Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling plane irradiance (Kd(λ, z)) had larger vertical variations, especially near water surface, in highly stratified waters. Three weighting average functions performed well in less stratified waters, and the weighting average function proposed by Zaneveld et al., (2005) performed best in highly stratified waters. The total contribution of the first three layers to rrs(λ, 0) was approximately 90%, but the contribution of each layer in the water column to rrs(λ, 0) varied with wavelength, vertical distribution of Chla(z) profiles, concentration of suspended particulate inorganic matter (SPIM), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). A simple stratified remote sensing reflectance model considering the vertical distribution of phytoplankton was built based on the contribution of each layer to rrs(λ, 0). View Full-Text
Keywords: vertical distribution of phytoplankton; underwater light field; subsurface remote sensing reflectance; weighting average function vertical distribution of phytoplankton; underwater light field; subsurface remote sensing reflectance; weighting average function
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Xue, K.; Ma, R. Evaluation of Weighting Average Functions as a Simplification of the Radiative Transfer Simulation in Vertically Inhomogeneous Eutrophic Waters. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1635. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081635

AMA Style

Xue K, Ma R. Evaluation of Weighting Average Functions as a Simplification of the Radiative Transfer Simulation in Vertically Inhomogeneous Eutrophic Waters. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(8):1635. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081635

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xue, Kun; Ma, Ronghua. 2019. "Evaluation of Weighting Average Functions as a Simplification of the Radiative Transfer Simulation in Vertically Inhomogeneous Eutrophic Waters" Appl. Sci. 9, no. 8: 1635. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081635

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop