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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040635

Experimental Investigation on the Deformability, Ultrasonic Wave Propagation, and Acoustic Emission of Rock Salt Under Triaxial Compression

1
Structural Health Monitoring and Control Institute, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043, Hebei, China
2
Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, G3 Center and EMS Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
3
State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Acoustic Emission (AE) on Rock Samples)
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Abstract

Ultrasonic waves, which constitute an active testing method, and acoustic emissions (AE), which can be applied as passive testing technology, can reveal rock damage processes in different ways. However, few studies so far have simultaneously adopted both, owing to the limitations of the experimental apparatus. However, the simultaneous use of both methods can improve the experimental efficiency and help to understand the rock damage evolution more comprehensively. In this study, concurrent experiments of ultrasonic waves and AE activities were carried out on rock salt under uniaxial compression, and the deformation characteristics were measured. The fracture process was divided into four stages with individual characteristics: the elastic compression stage, brittle-ductile transition with crack initiation, brittle-ductile transition with damage initiation, and plastic deformation and strain hardening stage. The ultrasonic wave velocity, crack density, ultrasonic wave amplitude, and attenuation coefficient were obtained to evaluate the damage process. The ultrasonic wave amplitude and the attenuation coefficient were recommended as forecast indicators, owing to their sensitivity and operability of measurement. The confining pressure had an inhibitory effect on crack expansion and on the AE activity, and the damage ultimate stress was defined and determined according to the AE activity and energy release characteristics. Four critical strengths of the crack initiation threshold stress, dilatancy boundary stress, short-term strength, and damage ultimate stress of rock salt were determined and then discussed. These results are valuable in evaluating rock damage and guiding the operation of underground salt caverns. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt cavern; damage ultimate stress; energy release; ultrasonic wave; acoustic emission salt cavern; damage ultimate stress; energy release; ultrasonic wave; acoustic emission
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Li, H.; Dong, Z.; Ouyang, Z.; Liu, B.; Yuan, W.; Yin, H. Experimental Investigation on the Deformability, Ultrasonic Wave Propagation, and Acoustic Emission of Rock Salt Under Triaxial Compression. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 635.

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