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Open AccessArticle

Information Extraction of Cybersecurity Concepts: An LSTM Approach

DISP Laboratory, Université Lumière Lyon 2, 69500 Lyon, France
Computer Science Department, College of Engineering, Qatar University, Doha P.O. Box 2713, Qatar;
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 3945;
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 September 2019
Extracting cybersecurity entities and the relationships between them from online textual resources such as articles, bulletins, and blogs and converting these resources into more structured and formal representations has important applications in cybersecurity research and is valuable for professional practitioners. Previous works to accomplish this task were mainly based on utilizing feature-based models. Feature-based models are time-consuming and need labor-intensive feature engineering to describe the properties of entities, domain knowledge, entity context, and linguistic characteristics. Therefore, to alleviate the need for feature engineering, we propose the usage of neural network models, specifically the long short-term memory (LSTM) models to accomplish the tasks of Named Entity Recognition (NER) and Relation Extraction (RE). We evaluated the proposed models on two tasks. The first task is performing NER and evaluating the results against the state-of-the-art Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) method. The second task is performing RE using three LSTM models and comparing their results to assess which model is more suitable for the domain of cybersecurity. The proposed models achieved competitive performance with less feature-engineering work. We demonstrate that exploiting neural network models in cybersecurity text mining is effective and practical. View Full-Text
Keywords: cybersecurity text; information extraction; named entity recognition; relation extraction; NLP; recurrent neural networks; LSTM cybersecurity text; information extraction; named entity recognition; relation extraction; NLP; recurrent neural networks; LSTM
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Gasmi, H.; Laval, J.; Bouras, A. Information Extraction of Cybersecurity Concepts: An LSTM Approach. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3945.

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