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Open AccessArticle

Quinoxaline-Based Dual Donor, Dual Acceptor Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Lahore, Lahore, Punjab 54000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091421
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
A novel metal-free quinoxaline-based molecular framework with a dual donor and dual acceptor (DD-π-AA) motif has been introduced. Four sensitizers (AP6, AP8, AP9, and AP12) have been synthesized and fully characterized via UV–Vis absorption, cyclic voltammetry, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) devices. Structural modifications to both the donor and acceptor/anchor regions were evaluated via structure–property relationships without altering the quinoxaline π-bridge. Through careful dye design, a broadly absorbing near-infrared (NIR) sensitizer extending electricity production to 800 nm is realized in DSC devices. Ground- and excited-state oxidation potentials were measured to show energetically favorable charge transfer events. Importantly, the dye structure was found to have a strong influence on dye energetics in different environments with structural elements allowing for either similar or dramatically different solution versus film measurements. The DSC device electrolyte was also found to have a significant influence on dye energetics as well. Electron transfer events were probed for each dye with DSC device measurements and with TCSPC studies. The results are correlated to the dye structures. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaics; dye-sensitized solar cells; organic dyes; chromophore; molecular engineering; dye energetics; fluorescence spectroscopy; density functional theory photovoltaics; dye-sensitized solar cells; organic dyes; chromophore; molecular engineering; dye energetics; fluorescence spectroscopy; density functional theory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peddapuram, A.; Cheema, H.; McNamara, L.E.; Zhang, Y.; Hammer, N.I.; Delcamp, J.H. Quinoxaline-Based Dual Donor, Dual Acceptor Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1421.

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