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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081306

Optimization of AZ91D Process and Corrosion Resistance Using Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing

Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
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Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metals)
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Abstract

Progress on Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques focusing on ceramics and polymers evolves, as metals continue to be a challenging material to manipulate when fabricating products. Current methods, such as Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM), face many intrinsic limitations due to the nature of their processes. Material selection, elevated cost, and low deposition rates are some of the barriers to consider when one of these methods is to be used for the fabrication of engineering products. The research presented demonstrates the use of a Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) system for the creation of metallic specimens. This project explored the feasibility of fabricating elements made from magnesium alloys with the potential to be used in biomedical applications. It is known that the elastic modulus of magnesium closely approximates that of natural bone than other metals. Thus, stress shielding phenomena can be reduced. Furthermore, the decomposition of magnesium shows no harm inside the human body since it is an essential element in the body and its decomposition products can be easily excreted through the urine. By alloying magnesium with aluminum and zinc, or rare earths such as yttrium, neodymium, cerium, and dysprosium, the structural integrity of specimens inside the human body can be assured. However, the in vivo corrosion rates of these products can be accelerated by the presence of impurities, voids, or segregation created during the manufacturing process. Fast corrosion rates would produce improper healing, which, in turn, involve subsequent surgical intervention. However, in this study, it has been proven that magnesium alloy AZ91D produced by WAAM has higher corrosion resistance than the cast AZ91D. Due to its structure, which has porosity or cracking only at the surface of the individual printed lines, the central sections present a void-less structure composed by an HCP magnesium matrix and a high density of well dispersed aluminum-zinc rich precipitates. Also, specimens created under different conditions have been analyzed in the macroscale and microscale to determine the parameters that yield the best visual and microstructural results. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; WAAM; corrosion; AZ91D additive manufacturing; WAAM; corrosion; AZ91D
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Han, S.; Zielewski, M.; Martinez Holguin, D.; Michel Parra, M.; Kim, N. Optimization of AZ91D Process and Corrosion Resistance Using Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1306.

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