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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030426

Cross-Cultural Perception of Spanish Synthetic Expressive Voices Among Asians

1
School of Computer Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Gelugor 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
2
Speech Technology Group, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Ramiro de Maeztu, 7, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 25 December 2017 / Published: 12 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Acoustics and Vibrations)
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Abstract

Nonverbal cues play a vital role in contributing to how emotions are perceived, especially by outgroups. In this study, a cross-cultural perception experiment of Spanish Synthetic Expressive Voices (SEV) was conducted to investigate the perception rate among different groups of Asians towards the SEV. Ten (10) subjects from each ethnic group namely Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Malaysians participated in this test. The subjects were required to listen to and categorize the SEV corpus which contains 260 utterances with 4 emotions (anger, happiness, sadness, and surprise) and the neutral speech in different intensities and durations. Overall, the results indicate that duration and intensity of speech plays a significant role in perception. This paper concludes that listeners’ perceptions are influenced by a speaker’s nonverbal expression and it is important that these features (duration and intensity of speech) are considered when modelling synthetic speech for artificial agents in real-time applications in a cross-cultural user environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonverbal; Spanish; perception; prosody; cross-cultural effects; artificial agents nonverbal; Spanish; perception; prosody; cross-cultural effects; artificial agents
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Renunathan Naidu, G.; Lebai Lutfi, S.; Azazi, A.A.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.; Martinez, J.M.M. Cross-Cultural Perception of Spanish Synthetic Expressive Voices Among Asians. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 426.

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