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A Dispersive Inelastic X-ray Scattering Spectrometer for Use at X-ray Free Electron Lasers
Open AccessReview

Ultrashort Free-Electron Laser X-ray Pulses

Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
Physik-Department E11, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany
Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany
European XFEL GmbH, Holzkoppel 4, 22869 Schenefeld, Germany
Center for Free-Electron Laser Science & Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg, Germany
Coherent Inc., 5100 Patrick Henry Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA
Institut für Physik und CINSaT, Universität Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Straße 40, 34132 Kassel, Germany
Elettra—Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14–km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy
National Center for Plasma Science and Technology and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Linac Coherent Light Source, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(9), 915;
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue X-Ray Free-Electron Laser)
For the investigation of processes happening on the time scale of the motion of bound electrons, well-controlled X-ray pulses with durations in the few-femtosecond and even sub-femtosecond range are a necessary prerequisite. Novel free-electron lasers sources provide these ultrashort, high-brightness X-ray pulses, but their unique aspects open up concomitant challenges for their characterization on a suitable time scale. In this review paper we describe progress and results of recent work on ultrafast pulse characterization at soft and hard X-ray free-electron lasers. We report on different approaches to laser-assisted time-domain measurements, with specific focus on single-shot characterization of ultrashort X-ray pulses from self-amplified spontaneous emission-based and seeded free-electron lasers. The method relying on the sideband measurement of X-ray electron ionization in the presence of a dressing optical laser field is described first. When the X-ray pulse duration is shorter than half the oscillation period of the streaking field, few-femtosecond characterization becomes feasible via linear streaking spectroscopy. Finally, using terahertz fields alleviates the issue of arrival time jitter between streaking laser and X-ray pulse, but compromises the achievable temporal resolution. Possible solutions to these remaining challenges for single-shot, full time–energy characterization of X-ray free-electron laser pulses are proposed in the outlook at the end of the review. View Full-Text
Keywords: free-electron laser; ultrashort pulse characterization; ultrafast X-ray physics; laser-dressed electron spectroscopy free-electron laser; ultrashort pulse characterization; ultrafast X-ray physics; laser-dressed electron spectroscopy
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Helml, W.; Grguraš, I.; Juranić, P.N.; Düsterer, S.; Mazza, T.; Maier, A.R.; Hartmann, N.; Ilchen, M.; Hartmann, G.; Patthey, L.; Callegari, C.; Costello, J.T.; Meyer, M.; Coffee, R.N.; Cavalieri, A.L.; Kienberger, R. Ultrashort Free-Electron Laser X-ray Pulses. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 915.

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