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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 760;

The Static Frictional Behaviors of Rubber for Pipe-Laying Operation

College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China
Laboratory of Tribology and Surface Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Experimental research is carried out to reveal the static frictional behaviors of rubber pipe contact systems. This research is motivated by deep water pipe-laying operations where rubber blocks are used to clamp the pipe to supply sufficient static friction. Within this context, a friction testing instrument has been designed to mimic a situation of the beginning of the pipe-laying installation. Using this instrument, the maximum static friction forces (F) of a rubber pipe contact system are tested. The results show that the ultimate values of the static frictions fluctuate due to the increasing rate of the tangential load (FT). The evolution of contact between rubber and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) pipe is observed to identify the formation and propagation of the folds within the apparent contact area. In addition, it is confirmed that the evolution of contact is influenced by the folds and creep of the rubber surface. The creep deformation takes primary effect in accelerating the separation of the interfaces of contact during relative high normal loads (20, 30, 40 N) and low increasing rate of FT; whereas for all of the testing normal loads (10–40 N), the propagation of the folds release the energy which is stored in the interface of rubber when the increasing rate of FT is high. Therefore, the fluctuation of the maximum static friction of the contact system can be regarded as a consequence of interaction of the creep and folds. Furthermore, the instability of the coefficient of static friction in this test has been examined, and it indicated that the creep and folds could affect the static friction distinctly within a certain range of a normal load. This research is beneficial for arranging appropriate normal loads and laying speeds to avoid pipes slipping during a pipe-laying operation. View Full-Text
Keywords: pipe-laying; rubber contact; static friction; surface folds; viscoelasticity pipe-laying; rubber contact; static friction; surface folds; viscoelasticity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhou, Y.-J.; Wang, D.-G.; Guo, Y.-B.; Liu, S.-H. The Static Frictional Behaviors of Rubber for Pipe-Laying Operation. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 760.

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