# Automated Diatom Classification (Part A): Handcrafted Feature Approaches

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials: Dataset Preparation

## 3. Valve Segmentation: Binary Thresholding

- Binary thresholding: automatic segmentation based on Otsu’s thresholding.
- Maximum area: calculation of the largest region (area).
- Hole filling: interior holes are filled if present, using mathematical morphology operators.
- Segmentation: the ROI is cropped with the coordinates of the bounding-box of the largest area (Step 2).

## 4. Diatom Handcrafted Feature Descriptors

#### 4.1. Morphological Descriptors

#### 4.1.1. Area

#### 4.1.2. Eccentricity

#### 4.1.3. Perimeter

#### 4.1.4. Shape

#### 4.1.5. Fullness

#### 4.2. Statistical Descriptors

#### 4.2.1. First Order Statistical: Histogram

#### 4.2.2. Second Order Statistical: Co-Occurrence Matrix

#### 4.3. Local Binary Patterns

#### 4.4. Hu Moments

#### 4.5. Texture Descriptors in the Space-Frequency Domain

#### Log Gabor Transform

## 5. Discriminant Analysis

#### 5.1. Correlation

#### 5.2. Sequential Forward Feature Selection

## 6. Classification

#### Bagging Trees

## 7. Results

#### 7.1. Experiment 1: Comparing Descriptor Types

#### 7.2. Experiment 2: Combinations of Descriptor Types

#### 7.3. Experiment 3: Dataset Dimension

## 8. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Diatoms observed by a microscope at 60× magnification and their main elements. The original image size is 903 × 614 pixels, and the selected diatom sample is 138 × 85 pixels.

**Figure 2.**Examples of the 80 diatom taxa classified in this study. Sample images are stretched for visualization purposes.

**Figure 3.**Different views and sizes of the same species: (

**a**) Gomphonema insigniforme; (

**b**) Nitzschia fossilis; and (

**c**) Rhoicosphenia abbreviata.

**Figure 5.**LBP images corresponding to the following species: (

**a**) Cymbella excisa var angusta; (

**b**) Cyclostephanos dubius; (

**c**) Gomphonema insigniforme; (

**d**) Achnanthes subhudsonis.

**Figure 6.**Log Gabor filters applied to diatom samples: (

**a**) Cyclostephanos dubius; (

**b**) Gomphonema insigniforme.

**Figure 9.**Accuracy performance with different numbers of classes using the bagging DT classifier. No data augmentation is applied when using 100 samples per class.

**Figure 10.**Confusion matrix classifying 80 classes with the bagging tree classifier 10-fold cross-validation (10 fcv).

**Figure 11.**Confusion matrix classifying 20 classes out of the 35 classes with 100 samples per class with no data augmentation and using the bagging tree classifier 10 fcv.

**Figure 13.**Diatoms species that produce the major misclassification errors: (

**a**) Gomphonema angustatum; (

**b**) Gomphonema micropumilum; (

**c**) Gomphonema minusculum; (

**d**) Gomphonema minutum; and (

**e**) Nitzschia costei.

**Table 1.**List of the 80 diatom species analyzed in the current study, showing the number of valves per class.

1. Achnanthes subhudsonis | 123 | 28. Encyonema minutum | 120 | 55. Gomphonema rhombicum | 64 |

2. Achnanthidium atomoides | 129 | 29. Encyonema reichardtii | 152 | 56. Humidophila contenta | 105 |

3. Achnanthidium caravelense | 59 | 30. Encyonema silesiacum | 108 | 57. Karayevia clevei varclevei | 84 |

4. Achnanthidium catenatum | 187 | 31. Encyonema ventricosum | 101 | 58. Luticola goeppertiana | 136 |

5. Achnanthidium druartii | 93 | 32. Encyonopsis alpina | 106 | 59. Mayamaea permitis | 40 |

6. Achnanthidium eutrophilum | 97 | 33. Encyonopsis minuta | 89 | 60. Melosira varians | 146 |

7. Achnanthidium exile | 98 | 34. Eolimna minima | 174 | 61. Navicula cryptotenella | 136 |

8. Achnanthidium jackii | 125 | 35. Eolimna rhombelliptica | 132 | 62. Navicula cryptotenelloides | 107 |

9. Achnanthidium rivulare | 305 | 36. Eolimna subminuscula | 94 | 63. Navicula gregaria | 50 |

10. Amphora pediculus | 117 | 37. Epithemia adnata | 72 | 64. Navicula lanceolata | 77 |

11. Aulacoseira subarctica | 113 | 38. Epithemia sorex | 85 | 65. Navicula tripunctata | 99 |

12. Cocconeis lineata | 81 | 39. Epithemia turgida | 93 | 66. Nitzschia amphibia | 124 |

13. Cocconeis pediculus | 49 | 40. Fragilaria arcus | 93 | 67. Nitzschia capitellata | 123 |

14. Cocconeis placentula var euglypta | 117 | 41. Fragilaria gracilis | 54 | 68. Nitzschia costei | 72 |

15. Craticula accomoda | 86 | 42. Fragilaria pararumpens | 74 | 69. Nitzschia desertorum | 71 |

16. Cyclostephanos dubius | 85 | 43. Fragilaria perminuta | 89 | 70. Nitzschia dissipata var media | 81 |

17. Cyclotella atomus | 99 | 44. Fragilaria rumpens | 49 | 71. Nitzschia fossilis | 76 |

18. Cyclotella meneghiniana | 103 | 45. Fragilaria vaucheriae | 82 | 72. Nitzschia frustulum var frustulum | 226 |

19. Cymbella excisa var angusta | 79 | 46. Gomphonema angustatum | 86 | 73. Nitzschia inconspicua | 255 |

20. Cymbella excisa var excisa | 241 | 47. Gomphonema angustivalva | 55 | 74. Nitzschia tropica | 65 |

21. Cymbella excisiformis var excisiformis | 142 | 48. Gomphonema insigniforme | 90 | 75. Nitzschia umbonata | 91 |

22. Cymbella parva | 177 | 49. Gomphonema micropumilum | 89 | 76. Rhoicosphenia abbreviata | 94 |

23. Denticula tenuis | 181 | 50. Gomphonema micropus | 117 | 77. Skeletonema potamos | 155 |

24. Diatoma mesodon | 115 | 51. Gomphonema minusculum | 158 | 78. Staurosira binodis | 94 |

25. Diatoma moniliformis | 134 | 52. Gomphonema minutum | 93 | 79. Staurosira venter | 87 |

26. Diatoma vulgaris | 88 | 53. Gomphonema parvulum saprophilum | 52 | 80. Thalassiosira pseudonana | 70 |

27. Discostella pseudostelligera | 82 | 54. Gomphonema pumilum var elegans | 128 |

**Table 2.**List of handcrafted feature descriptors divided into categories. LBP, Local Binary Pattern.

CATEGORY | HANDCRAFTED FEATURE | TOTAL |
---|---|---|

Morphological | Area, eccentricity (3 eccentricities) | 7 features |

Perimeter, shape, fullness | ||

Statistical | 1st order (histogram) | 13 features |

2nd order (co-occurrence matrix) | 19 features | |

$distance=1,3,5$ pixels | ||

$direction={0}^{\circ}$, ${45}^{\circ}$, ${90}^{\circ}$, ${135}^{\circ}$ | ||

Texture space | LBP | Stat.241 features |

Moments | Hu | 7 moments |

Space-frequency | Log Gabor | 4 scales (6 orientations) |

241 × 4 = 964 features |

Mean | $\mu ={\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}i\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}h(i)$ |

Mode | $i=argmax(h(i))$ |

Minimum | $min(h(i))$ |

Maximum | $max(h(i))$ |

Variance | $\sigma ={\sum}_{n=0}^{H-1}{(i-\mu )}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}h(i)$ |

Range | $max(h(i))-min(h(i))$ |

Entropy | ${\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}h(i)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}log(h(i))$ |

1st Quartile | ${\mu}_{q1}={\sum}_{i=3\lceil H/4\rceil}^{H}i\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}h(i)$ |

2nd Quartile | ${\mu}_{q2}={\sum}_{i=2\lceil H/4\rceil}^{3\lceil H/4\rceil}i\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}h(i)$ |

3rd Quartile | ${\mu}_{q3}={\sum}_{i=\lceil H/4\rceil}^{2\lceil H/4\rceil}i\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}h(i)$ |

Interquartile Range | ${\mu}_{q3}-{\mu}_{q1}$ |

Asymmetry | $\frac{1}{{\sigma}^{3}}{\sum}_{n=0}^{H-1}{(i-\mu )}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}h(i)$ |

Kurtosis | $\frac{1}{{\sigma}^{4}}{\sum}_{n=0}^{H-1}{(i-\mu )}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}h(i)$ |

Energy | ${\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}c{(i,j)}^{2}$ |

Variance | ${\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}{(i-\mu )}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}c(i,j)$ |

Contrast | ${\sum}_{n=0}^{H-1}{n}^{2}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">{\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}c(i,j)$, $|i-j|=n$ |

Dissimilarity | ${\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}|i-j|\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}c(i,j)$ |

Correlation | $\frac{1}{{\sigma}_{x}{\sigma}_{y}}{\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}i\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}j\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}c(i,j)-{\mu}_{x}{\mu}_{y}$ |

Autocorrelation | ${\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}i\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}j\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}c(i,j)$ |

Entropy | $T=-{\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}c(i,j)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}log(c(i,j))$ |

Measure of Correlation 1 | $\frac{T-HXY1}{max(HX,HY)}$ |

Measure of Correlation 2 | ${(1-exp[2\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}(HXY2-T)])}^{0.5}$ |

Cluster Shade | ${\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}{(i+j-{\mu}_{x}-{\mu}_{y})}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}c(i,j)$ |

Cluster Prominence | ${\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}{(i+j-{\mu}_{x}-{\mu}_{y})}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}c(i,j)$ |

Maximum Probability | $max(c(i,j))$, $i=[0\dots H-1]$, $j=[0\dots H-1]$ |

Sum Average | ${\sum}_{i=0}^{2(H-1)}i\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{c}_{x+y}(i)$ |

Sum Entropy | ${\sum}_{i=0}^{2(H-1)}{c}_{x+y}(i)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}log({c}_{x+y}(i,j))$ |

Sum Variance | $-{\sum}_{i=0}^{2(H-1)}{(i-SumEntropy)}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{c}_{x+y}(i)$ |

Difference Entropy | $-{\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{c}_{x-y}(i)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}log({c}_{x-y}(i,j))$ |

Difference Variance | ${\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{i}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{c}_{x-y}(i)$ |

Homogeneity 1 | ${\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}\frac{c(i,j)}{1+{(i-j)}^{2}}$ |

Homogeneity 2 | ${\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}\frac{c(i,j)}{{1+|i-j|}^{2}}$ |

H bins number, $HX$ and $HY$ entropy of ${p}_{x}$ and ${p}_{y}$. | |

${\mu}_{x}={\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}i\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}c(i,j)$; ${\mu}_{y}={\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}j\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}c(i,j)$ | |

${c}_{x}(i)={\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}c(i,j)$; ${c}_{y}(j)={\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}c(i,j)$ | |

${\sigma}_{x}=\sqrt{{\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{c}_{x}(i){(i-{\mu}_{x})}^{2}}$; ${\sigma}_{y}=\sqrt{{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}{c}_{y}(i){(i-{\mu}_{y})}^{2}}$ | |

${c}_{x+y}(k)={\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}c(i,j)$; $i+j=k$, $k=[0\dots 2(H-1)]$ | |

${c}_{x-y}(k)={\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}p(i,j)$; $|i-j|=k$, $k=[0\dots H-1]$ | |

$HXY1=-{\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}c(i,j)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}log({c}_{x}(i)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{c}_{y}(j))$ | |

$HXY2=-{\sum}_{i=0}^{H-1}{\sum}_{j=0}^{H-1}{c}_{x}(i)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{c}_{y}(j)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}log({c}_{x}(i)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{c}_{y}(j))$ |

**Table 5.**The 100 most discriminant handcrafted features listed in decreasing order of importance. LBP stands for Local Binary Patterns, M for Morphological, S for Statistical and Gn for log Gabor band $n=1\dots 4$.

1 | M | Shape | 35 | LBP | Contrast (d = 3, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 69 | G1 | Contrast (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) |

2 | S | 1st Quartile | 36 | G4 | Correlation 1 (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 70 | S | ΣAverage (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) |

3 | M | Asymmetry | 37 | G4 | Correlation 1 (d = 1, ${135}^{\circ}$) | 71 | G4 | Entropy |

4 | S | Contrast (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 38 | S | Energy (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 72 | LBP | Cluster Prominence (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) |

5 | S | Energy | 39 | S | Correlation 1 (d = 3, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 73 | G4 | Cluster Shade (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) |

6 | S | Contrast (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 40 | S | Homogeneity 1 (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 74 | LBP | Correlation 1 (d = 3, ${0}^{\circ}$) |

7 | G4 | Correlation 1 (d = 3, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 41 | S | Correlation 1 (d = 3, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 75 | S | Entropy |

8 | S | Interquartile Range | 42 | LBP | ΔVariance (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 76 | G3 | ΔEntropy (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) |

9 | G4 | ΔEntropy (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 43 | G3 | Correlation 1 (d = 3, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 77 | LBP | Correlation (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) |

10 | LBP | 1st Quartile | 44 | G2 | Contrast (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 78 | LBP | Contrast (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) |

11 | LBP | Correlation 1 (d = 3, ${135}^{\circ}$) | 45 | LBP | Correlation 1 (d = 3, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 79 | G3 | Energy (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) |

12 | LBP | Max. Probability (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 46 | LBP | Correlation 1 (d = 3, ${135}^{\circ}$) | 80 | G4 | Correlation 1 (d = 5, ${0}^{\circ}$) |

13 | LBP | Contrast (d = 3, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 47 | LBP | Max. Probability (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 81 | LBP | Homogeneity 1 (d = 1, ${135}^{\circ}$) |

14 | S | Variance | 48 | S | Correlation 1 (d = 5, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 82 | G4 | ΔVariance (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) |

15 | LBP | Correlation 1 (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 49 | G4 | ΔVariance (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 83 | LBP | Max. Probability (d = 3, ${135}^{\circ}$) |

16 | S | Kurtosis | 50 | S | 3rd Quartile | 84 | G4 | Entropy (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) |

17 | LBP | Autocorrelation (d = 3, ${135}^{\circ}$) | 51 | S | Correlation 1 (d = 5, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 85 | G4 | Correlation 1 (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) |

18 | G4 | ΔEntropy (d = 3, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 52 | S | Dissimilarity (d = 5, ${135}^{\circ}$) | 86 | G3 | ΔVariance (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) |

19 | S | Autocorrelation (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 53 | S | Max. Probability (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 87 | G4 | Correlation (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) |

20 | G4 | Dissimilarity (d = 1, ${135}^{\circ}$) | 54 | S | Homogeneity 1 (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 88 | LBP | Correlation 1 (d = 3, ${90}^{\circ}$) |

21 | G3 | ΔEntropy (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 55 | S | Correlation (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 89 | G3 | Correlation 1 (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) |

22 | LBP | Contrast (d = 1, ${135}^{\circ}$) | 56 | G4 | Correlation 1 (d = 3, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 90 | G3 | Contrast (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) |

23 | LBP | Contrast (d = 5, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 57 | S | Correlation 1 (d = 3, ${135}^{\circ}$) | 91 | G4 | Cluster Prominence (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) |

24 | LBP | Contrast (d = 3, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 58 | LBP | Contrast (d = 5, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 92 | G3 | Correlation (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) |

25 | S | Sum Average (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 59 | LBP | Correlation 1 (d = 5, ${135}^{\circ}$) | 93 | G4 | Contrast (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) |

26 | LBP | Contrast (d = 5, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 60 | G4 | Correlation 1 (d = 5, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 94 | M | Area |

27 | G4 | Correlation 1 (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 61 | LBP | Correlation 1 (d = 1, ${90}^{\circ}$) | 95 | G3 | Cluster Shade (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) |

28 | G4 | Dissimilarity (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 62 | S | Correlation1 (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 96 | G2 | Dissimilarity (d = 1, ${135}^{\circ}$) |

29 | S | Homogeneity 1 (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 63 | LBP | Homogeneity 1 (d = 3, ${135}^{\circ}$) | 97 | G3 | Correlation 1 (d = 3, ${135}^{\circ}$) |

30 | G4 | Kurtosis | 64 | LBP | Homogeneity 1 (d = 3, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 98 | M | Eccentricity |

31 | G4 | Dissimilarity (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 65 | G3 | Correlation (d = 1, ${45}^{\circ}$) | 99 | LBP | Max. Probability (d = 3, ${45}^{\circ}$) |

32 | G4 | Energy (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 66 | G3 | Correlation 1 (d = 1, ${135}^{\circ}$) | 100 | LBP | Correlation 1 (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) |

33 | LBP | Homogeneity 1 (d = 1, ${0}^{\circ}$) | 67 | G3 | Kurtosis | |||

34 | G3 | Dissimilarity (d = 1, ${135}^{\circ}$) | 68 | S | 2nd Quartile |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Bueno, G.; Deniz, O.; Pedraza, A.; Ruiz-Santaquiteria, J.; Salido, J.; Cristóbal, G.; Borrego-Ramos, M.; Blanco, S.
Automated Diatom Classification (Part A): Handcrafted Feature Approaches. *Appl. Sci.* **2017**, *7*, 753.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app7080753

**AMA Style**

Bueno G, Deniz O, Pedraza A, Ruiz-Santaquiteria J, Salido J, Cristóbal G, Borrego-Ramos M, Blanco S.
Automated Diatom Classification (Part A): Handcrafted Feature Approaches. *Applied Sciences*. 2017; 7(8):753.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app7080753

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Bueno, Gloria, Oscar Deniz, Anibal Pedraza, Jesús Ruiz-Santaquiteria, Jesús Salido, Gabriel Cristóbal, María Borrego-Ramos, and Saúl Blanco.
2017. "Automated Diatom Classification (Part A): Handcrafted Feature Approaches" *Applied Sciences* 7, no. 8: 753.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app7080753