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Correction published on 15 November 2017, see Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(11), 1174.

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 666;

Auditory Distance Control Using a Variable-Directivity Loudspeaker

Institute of Electronic Music and Acoustics, University of Music and Performing Arts Graz, Inffeldgasse 10/III, 8010 Graz, Austria
This paper is an extended version of the paper published at the International Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-16), Brno, Czech Republic, 5–9 September 2016; pp. 295–300.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Woon-Seng Gan and Jung-Woo Choi
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Audio)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5797 KB, uploaded 16 November 2017]   |  


The directivity of a sound source in a room influences the D/R ratio and thus the auditory distance. This study proposes various third-order beampattern pattern designs for a precise control of the D/R ratio. A comprehensive experimental study is conducted to investigate the hereby achieved effect on the auditory distance. Our first experiment auralizes the directivity variations using a virtual directional sound source in a virtual room using playback by a 24-channel loudspeaker ring. The experiment moreover shows the influence of room, source-listener distance, signal, and additional single-channel reverberation on the auditory distance. We verify the practical applicability of all the proposed beampattern pattern designs in a second experiment using a variable-directivity sound source in a real room. Predictions of experimental results are made with high accuracy, using room acoustical measures that typically predict the apparent source width. View Full-Text
Keywords: icosahedral loudspeaker; variable-directivity source; auditory distance; D/R ratio; apparent source width icosahedral loudspeaker; variable-directivity source; auditory distance; D/R ratio; apparent source width

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Wendt, F.; Zotter, F.; Frank, M.; Höldrich, R. Auditory Distance Control Using a Variable-Directivity Loudspeaker. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 666.

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