Next Article in Journal
A Simple Method for the Evaluation of the Pulse Width of an Ultraviolet Femtosecond Laser Used in Two-Photon Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Next Article in Special Issue
Dynamical Systems for Audio Synthesis: Embracing Nonlinearities and Delay-Free Loops
Previous Article in Journal
Innovative Methodology for Multi-View Point Cloud Registration in Robotic 3D Object Scanning and Reconstruction
Previous Article in Special Issue
Psychoacoustic Approaches for Harmonic Music Mixing
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(5), 129;

All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

Department of Signal Processing and Acoustics, Aalto University, Espoo 02150, Finland
Centre for Digital Music, Queen Mary University London, London E1 4NS, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gino Iannace
Received: 15 March 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Audio Signal Processing)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1883 KB, uploaded 6 May 2016]   |  


Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at View Full-Text
Keywords: acoustic signal processing; audio systems; digital filters; digital signal processing; equalizers; infinite impulse response filters; music technology acoustic signal processing; audio systems; digital filters; digital signal processing; equalizers; infinite impulse response filters; music technology

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Välimäki, V.; Reiss, J.D. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 129.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top