Next Article in Journal
Extending the Effective Ranging Depth of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography by Spatial Frequency Domain Multiplexing
Next Article in Special Issue
Land Cover Classification Using a KOMPSAT-3A Multi-Spectral Satellite Image
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Energy-Efficient On–Off Power Control of Femto-Cell Base Stations for Cooperative Cellular Networks
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(11), 358;

TRAP: A Three-Way Handshake Server for TCP Connection Establishment

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan
School of Applied Foreign Languages, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
CyberTrust Technology Institute, Institute for Information Industry, Taipei 10622, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos Bouras
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [2053 KB, uploaded 16 November 2016]   |  


Distributed denial of service attacks have become more and more frequent nowadays. In 2013, a massive distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack was launched against Spamhaus causing the service to shut down. In this paper, we present a three-way handshaking server for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection redirection utilizing TCP header options. When a legitimate client attempted to connect to a server undergoing an SYN-flood DDoS attack, it will try to initiate a three-way handshake. After it has successfully established a connection, the server will reply with a reset (RST) packet, in which a new server address and a secret is embedded. The client can, thus, connect to the new server that only accepts SYN packets with the corrected secret using the supplied secret. View Full-Text
Keywords: TCP; DDoS; three-way handshake; SYN flood attack; Netfilter; TCP options TCP; DDoS; three-way handshake; SYN flood attack; Netfilter; TCP options

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, F.-H.; Hwang, Y.-L.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Cai, W.-T.; Lee, C.-H.; Chang, K. TRAP: A Three-Way Handshake Server for TCP Connection Establishment. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 358.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top