# Digital Watermarking System for Copyright Protection and Authentication of Images Using Cryptographic Techniques

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{4}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Literature Survey

## 3. Preliminaries

#### 3.1. RSA Algorithm

- Pick two big prime numbers,
**r**, and**s**. - Find
**t = r × s**by multiplying these values, where t is referred to as the modulus for encryption and decoding. - Use a number k less than t so that t is roughly prime to
**(r − 1) × (s − 1),**which indicates that the only factor in common between k and**(r − 1) × (s − 1)**is 1. Select “k” so that 1 < k < φ (t), k is prime to φ (t), and**gcd (e,d(t)) = 1**. - The public key is <e, t> for
**t = r × s**. The public key <e, t> encrypts a plaintext message m. The mathematical methodology is employed to obtain ciphertext C from the original message:**C = m**.^{k}mod t - The following formula is employed to calculate the d and set the private key in a way that
**D**._{k}mod {(r − 1) × (s − 1)} = 1 - <d, t> is the private key. The private key <d, t> is used to decipher the ciphertext message c. The below formula is used to generate plain text m out from ciphertext c:
**m = c**.^{d}mod t - Different inputs of x(o), u, prime numbers, and the generated public and private keys with an encrypted message and decrypted messages are shown in Table 1.

#### 3.2. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)

#### 3.3. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)

**M = U × S × V**, where S is utilized to embed the watermark information.

^{T}## 4. Proposed Method

#### 4.1. Embedding

**Step****1:**- The watermark data consisting of name and country is created as a QR code.
**Step****2:**- Generate a public key and an encrypted message by inputting private key values into the RSA algorithm.
**Step****3:**- The QR code is scrambled using a
**Chaotic Logistic Map (CLM)**to provide watermark data security. **Step****4:**- Import the significant image where the watermark has to be concealed.
**Step****5:**- Convert the imported color image into red, green, and blue components.
**Step****6:**- Consider the blue layer and apply one-level Haar wavelet decomposition to obtain the four subbands (LL, LH, HL, and HH).
**Step****7:**- The LL subband and scrambled QR image are selected and decomposed using SVD decomposition.
**Step****8:**- Both images’ singular values are considered and combined with a key value to generate watermarked singular values.
**Step****9:**- A watermarked LL subband is created using an invertible SVD.
**Step****10:**- By fusing the watermarked LL subband and the other subbands to create the watermarked blue layer, an inverse DWT is implemented for one level.
**Step****11:**- A watermarked color image is created by combining a blue layer with the red, green, and other layers.
**Step****12:**- The watermarked image with the public key and key value are communicated to the receiver.

#### 4.2. Extraction

**Step****1:**- Examine the image that is watermarked.
**Step****2:**- The color watermarked image is converted to red, green, and blue layers.
**Step****3:**- As the watermark is embedded in the blue component, the same is considered for extraction.
**Step****4:**- The blue component is applied with one-level DWT with a Haar wavelet.
**Step****5:**- The LL subband is considered, and SVD is applied to generate a singular value matrix.
**Step****6:**- A scrambled QR watermark is extracted based on the key values and partial data of the significant image.
**Step****7:**- Inverse scrambling is applied to the extracted watermark using the CLM algorithm.
**Step****8:**- The watermark is extracted with the decrypted message using the public key, which contains the private key values to verify the watermarked data.

## 5. Experimental Results

#### 5.1. Evaluation Metrics

#### 5.1.1. Peak-Signal-to-Noise Ratio

#### 5.1.2. Normalized Correlation Coefficient

#### 5.2. Noise Attacks

#### 5.2.1. Salt and Pepper Noise

#### 5.2.2. Gaussian Noise Attack

#### 5.2.3. Mean Filtering Attack

#### 5.2.4. JPEG Compression

#### 5.3. Geometric Attacks

#### 5.3.1. Cropping Attack

#### 5.3.2. Rotation Attack

#### 5.3.3. Scaling Attack

#### 5.3.4. Translation Attack

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Vaidya, S.P. Multiple decompositions-based blind watermarking scheme for color images. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, Solapur, India, 21–22 December 2018; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2018; pp. 132–143. [Google Scholar]
- Hosny, K.M.; Darwish, M.M. Invariant image watermarking using accurate polar harmonic transforms. Comput. Electr. Eng.
**2017**, 62, 429–447. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Sanivarapu, P.V.; Rajesh, K.N.V.P.S.; Reddy, N.V.R.; Reddy, N.C.S. Patient data hiding into ECG signal using watermarking in transform domain. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med.
**2020**, 43, 213–226. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Vaidya, S.P.; PVSSR, C.M. Adaptive digital watermarking for copyright protection of digital images in wavelet domain. Procedia Comput. Sci.
**2015**, 58, 233–240. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Vaidya, P.; PVSSR, C.M. A robust semi-blind watermarking for color images based on multiple decompositions. Multimed. Tools Appl.
**2017**, 76, 25623–25656. [Google Scholar] - Hosny, K.M.; Darwish, M.M. Robust color image watermarking using invariant quaternion Legendre-Fourier moments. Multimed. Tools Appl.
**2018**, 77, 24727–24750. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Vaidya, P.; PVSSR, C.M. Adaptive, robust, and blind digital watermarking using Bhattacharyya distance and bit manipulation. Multimed. Tools Appl.
**2018**, 77, 5609–5635. [Google Scholar] - Hosny, K.M.; Darwish, M.M.; Fouda, M.M. Robust color images watermarking using new fractional-order exponent moments. IEEE Access
**2021**, 9, 47425–47435. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Hosny, K.M.; Darwish, M.M.; Li, K.; Salah, A. Parallel multi-core CPU and GPU for fast and robust medical image watermarking. IEEE Access
**2018**, 6, 77212–77225. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Hosny, K.M.; Darwish, M.M. New geometrically invariant multiple zero watermarking algorithm for color medical images. Biomed. Signal Process. Control
**2021**, 70, 103007. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Hosny, K.M.; Darwish, M.M. Reversible color image watermarking using fractional-order polar harmonic transforms and a chaotic sine map. Circuits Syst. Signal Process.
**2021**, 40, 6121–6145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - van Schyndel, R.G.; Tirkel, A.Z.; Osborne, C.F. A digital watermark. In Proceedings of the IEEE 1st International Conference on Image Processing, Austin, TX, USA, 13–16 November 1994; Volume 2, pp. 86–90. [Google Scholar]
- Singh, A.K. Robust and distortion control dual watermarking in LWT domain using DCT and error correction code for color medical image. Multimed. Tools Appl.
**2019**, 78, 30523–30533. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Anand, A.; Singh, A.K. Joint watermarking-encryption-ECC for patient record security in wavelet domain. IEEE MultiMedia
**2020**, 27, 66–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Kaur, G.; Agarwal, R.; Patidar, V. Crypto-watermarking of images for secure transmission overcloud. J. Inf. Optim. Sci.
**2020**, 41, 205–216. [Google Scholar] - Zermi, N.; Khaldi, A.; Kafi, R.; Kahlessenane, F.; Euschi, S. A DWT-SVD based robust digital watermarking for medical image security. Forensic Sci. Int.
**2021**, 320, 110691. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Borra, S.; Thanki, R. Crypto-watermarking scheme for tamper detection of medical images. Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng. Imaging Vis.
**2020**, 8, 345–355. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Lebcir, M.; Awang, S.; Benziane, A. Robust blind watermarking approach against the compression for fingerprint image using 2D-DCT. Multimed. Tools Appl.
**2022**, 81, 20561–20583. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zhou, X.; Tang, X. Research and implementation of RSA algorithm for encryption and decryption. In Proceedings of the IEEE 2011 6th International Forum on Strategic Technology, Harbin, China, 22–24 August 2011; Volume 2, pp. 1118–1121. [Google Scholar]
- Shensa, M.J. The discrete wavelet transform: Wedding the a trous and Mallat algorithms. IEEE Trans. Signal Process.
**1992**, 40, 2464–2482. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Vaidya, S.P. A blind color image watermarking using brisk features and contourlet transform. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Trends in Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, Solapur, India, 21–22 December 2018; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2018; pp. 203–215. [Google Scholar]
- Vaidya, S.P.; PVSSR, C.M.; Santosh, K.C. Imperceptible watermark for a game-theoretic watermarking system. Int. J. Mach. Learn. Cybern.
**2019**, 10, 1323–1339. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Nason, G.P.; Silverman, B.W. The discrete wavelet transform in s. J. Comput. Graph. Stat.
**1994**, 3, 163–191. [Google Scholar] - Van Fleet, P.J. Discrete Wavelet Transformations: An Elementary Approach with Applications; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Chang, C.; Girod, B. Direction-adaptive discrete wavelet transform for image compression. IEEE Trans. Image Process.
**2007**, 16, 1289–1302. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Vaidya, S.P.; PVSSR, C.M. A robust and blind watermarking for color videos using redundant wavelet domain and SVD. In Smart Computing Paradigms: New Progresses and Challenges; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2020; pp. 11–17. [Google Scholar]
- Mun, S.-M.; Nam, S.-H.; Jang, H.-U.; Kim, D.; Lee, H.-K. A robust blind watermarking using convolutional neural network. arXiv
**2017**, arXiv:1704.03248. [Google Scholar] - Agoyi, M.; C¸elebi, E.; Anbarjafari, G. A watermarking algorithm based on chirp z-transform, discrete wavelet transform, and singular value decomposition. Signal Image Video Process.
**2015**, 9, 735–745. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Inputs and Outputs of RSA Algorithm | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

X(o) (0–1) | U (3.56–4) | Prime Numbers | Public Key | Private Key | Encrypted Message | Decrypted Message |

0.2 | 3.6 | (3, 5) | (1, 15) | (1, 15) | 31514649 | (0.2, 3.6) |

0.4 | 3.7 | (5, 7) | (23, 35) | (27, 55) | 2716334111620 | (0.4, 3.7) |

0.5 | 3.6 | (5, 13) | (19, 65) | (43, 65) | 226273451624 | (0.5, 3.6) |

0.6 | 3.8 | (5, 11) | (11, 55) | (11, 55) | 3746544451461 | (0.6, 3.8) |

0.8 | 3.9 | (7, 13) | (35, 91) | (35, 91) | 55249602528 | (0.8, 3.9) |

Images | PSNR and NCC Values without Attacks | ||
---|---|---|---|

House | 42.25, 1.00 | Lake | 41.68, 1.00 |

Tree | 43.56, 1.00 | Pepper | 40.35, 1.00 |

Girl | 42.85, 1.00 | House 2 | 41.74, 1.00 |

Mandrill | 43.12, 1.00 | Einstein | 43.36, 1.00 |

Lena | 42.22, 1.00 | Monalisa | 43.81, 1.00 |

Jetplane | 41.81, 1.00 | Monarch | 42.65, 1.00 |

Images | PSNR and NCC Values after Attacks | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

Salt and Pepper | Gaussian | Mean Filtering | JPEG Compression | |

House | 36.11, 0.9789 | 39.01, 0.9898 | 33.12, 0.9901 | 37.12, 0.9938 |

Tree | 36.05, 0.9796 | 38.87, 0.9885 | 33.25, 0.9905 | 37.28, 0.9942 |

Girl | 35.56, 0.9898 | 38.86, 0.9896 | 33.18, 0.9908 | 37.25, 0.9935 |

Mandrill | 35.66, 0.9899 | 38.96, 0.9901 | 33.22, 0.9906 | 37.24, 0.9932 |

Lena | 35.28, 0.9887 | 38.15, 0.9914 | 33.15, 0.9910 | 37.16, 0.9949 |

Jetplane | 35.47, 0.9815 | 38.42, 0.9912 | 33.16, 0.9903 | 37.21, 0.9936 |

Lake | 35.22, 0.9829 | 38.36, 0.9908 | 33.11, 0.9907 | 37.27, 0.9937 |

Pepper | 35.84, 0.9867 | 38.51, 0.9925 | 33.08, 0.9915 | 37.28, 0.9932 |

House 2 | 36.24, 0.9814 | 39.12, 0.9904 | 33.13, 0.9911 | 37.24, 0.9941 |

Einstein | 36.05, 0.9885 | 39.21, 0.9916 | 33.17, 0.9916 | 37.28, 0.9934 |

Monalisa | 35.69, 0.9829 | 39.11, 0.9892 | 33.22, 0.9914 | 37.22, 0.9914 |

Monarch | 35.88, 0.9785 | 39.05, 0.9845 | 33.20, 0.9909 | 37.24, 0.9909 |

Images | PSNR and NCC Values after Attacks | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

Cropping | Rotation | Scaling | Translation | |

House | 28.36, 0.9801 | 29.06, 0.9896 | 38.66, 0.9964 | 36.42, 0.9777 |

Tree | 29.05, 0.9815 | 28.58, 0.9889 | 38.59, 0.9948 | 36.28, 0.9765 |

Girl | 29.23, 0.9836 | 29.12, 0.9885 | 39.28, 0.9947 | 36.19, 0.9787 |

Mandrill | 29.26, 0.9885 | 29.14, 0.9889 | 39.22, 0.9957 | 36.33, 0.9789 |

Lena | 28.21, 0.9869 | 28.12, 0.9904 | 38.92, 0.9954 | 36.23, 0.9778 |

Jetplane | 29.60, 0.9878 | 27.86, 0.9911 | 37.99, 0.9958 | 36.19, 0.9781 |

Lake | 29.35, 0.9886 | 28.26, 0.9919 | 38.84, 0.9961 | 36.28, 0.9776 |

Pepper | 29.48, 0.9891 | 27.87, 0.9921 | 37.94, 0.9955 | 36.22, 0.9785 |

House 2 | 29.54, 0.9912 | 28.56, 0.9902 | 38.65, 0.9961 | 36.18, 0.9788 |

Einstein | 29.22, 0.9905 | 29.14, 0.9919 | 39.19, 0.9951 | 36.19, 0.9781 |

Monalisa | 29.35, 0.9897 | 29.04, 0.9901 | 39.21, 0.9968 | 36.24, 0.9782 |

Monarch | 29.32,0.9856 | 28.87, 0.9842 | 38.92, 0.9964 | 36.28, 0.9778 |

Image Attacks | Schemes | Lena | Mandrill | Peppers | Airplane |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

No Attack | Vaidya et al. [4] | 1.00 | 1.00 | 1.00 | 1.00 |

Mun et al. [27] | 0.9885 | 0.9886 | 0.9895 | 0.9879 | |

Agoyi et al. [28] | 0.8694 | 0.8837 | 0.9030 | 0.9025 | |

Hosny et al. [6] | 0.9995 | 0.9995 | 0.9995 | 0.9995 | |

Proposed Method | 1.00 | 1.00 | 1.00 | 1.00 | |

Salt and Pepper noise | Vaidya et al. [4] | 0.8458 | 0.7156 | 0.9465 | 0.9325 |

Mun et al. [27] | - | - | - | - | |

Agoyi et al. [28] | - | - | - | - | |

Hosny et al. [6] | 0.9916 | 0.9916 | 0.9916 | 0.9916 | |

Proposed Method | 0.9887 | 0.9899 | 0.9867 | 0.9815 | |

Gaussian noise | Vaidya et al. [4] | 0.8489 | 0.8053 | 0.9279 | 0.9114 |

Mun et al. [27] | - | - | - | - | |

Agoyi et al. [28] | 0.7955 | 0.7796 | 0.8083 | 0.7956 | |

Hosny et al. [6] | 0.9905 | 0.9905 | 0.9905 | 0.9905 | |

Proposed Method | 0.9914 | 0.9901 | 0.9925 | 0.9912 | |

Cropping | Vaidya et al. [4] | 0.8944 | 0.8946 | 0.8942 | 0.8965 |

Mun et al. [27] | 0.9921 | 0.9860 | 0.9948 | 0.9888 | |

Agoyi et al. [28] | - | - | - | - | |

Hosny et al. [6] | - | - | - | - | |

Proposed Method | 0.9869 | 0.9885 | 0.9891 | 0.9878 | |

Scaling | Vaidya et al. [4] | 0.9827 | 0.9956 | 0.9980 | 0.9963 |

Mun et al. [27] | 0.9837 | 0.9742 | 0.9768 | 0.9879 | |

Agoyi et al. [28] | 0.9263 | 0.9675 | 0.9644 | 0.9381 | |

Hosny et al. [6] | 0.9940 | 0.9940 | 0.9940 | 0.9940 | |

Proposed Method | 0.9954 | 0.9957 | 0.9955 | 0.9958 | |

JPEG Compression (90) | Vaidya et al. [4] | 0.9053 | 0.8983 | 0.8819 | 0.8956 |

Mun et al. [27] | 0.9457 | 0.6537 | 0.9194 | 0.9472 | |

Agoyi et al. [28] | 0.8469 | 0.8469 | 0.8901 | 0.8854 | |

Hosny et al. [6] | 0.9928 | 0.9928 | 0.9928 | 0.9928 | |

Proposed Method | 0.9949 | 0.9932 | 0.9932 | 0.9936 |

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. |

© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Sanivarapu, P.V.; Rajesh, K.N.V.P.S.; Hosny, K.M.; Fouda, M.M.
Digital Watermarking System for Copyright Protection and Authentication of Images Using Cryptographic Techniques. *Appl. Sci.* **2022**, *12*, 8724.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178724

**AMA Style**

Sanivarapu PV, Rajesh KNVPS, Hosny KM, Fouda MM.
Digital Watermarking System for Copyright Protection and Authentication of Images Using Cryptographic Techniques. *Applied Sciences*. 2022; 12(17):8724.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178724

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Sanivarapu, Prasanth Vaidya, Kandala N. V. P. S. Rajesh, Khalid M. Hosny, and Mostafa M. Fouda.
2022. "Digital Watermarking System for Copyright Protection and Authentication of Images Using Cryptographic Techniques" *Applied Sciences* 12, no. 17: 8724.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178724