Next Article in Journal
Carbon Lock-In and Contradictions—Applied Guide to Academic Teaching of Mexico’s Energy Transition
Next Article in Special Issue
Relational Positioning Method for 2D and 3D Ad Hoc Sensor Networks in Industry 4.0
Previous Article in Journal
Assessment of Soft Computing Techniques for the Prediction of Suspended Sediment Loads in Rivers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Towards a Flexible Smart Factory with a Dynamic Resource Orchestration
Article

Trusted GNSS-Based Time Synchronization for Industry 4.0 Applications

by *,† and
LINKS Foundation, 10138 Torino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Silvio Abrate and Tiago M. Fernández-Caramés
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8288; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188288
Received: 28 July 2021 / Revised: 25 August 2021 / Accepted: 2 September 2021 / Published: 7 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information and Communications Technology for Industry 4.0)
The protection of satellite-derived timing information is becoming a fundamental requirement in Industry 4.0 applications, as well as in a growing number of critical infrastructures. All the industrial systems where several nodes or devices communicate and/or coordinate their functionalities by means of a communication network need accurate, reliable and trusted time synchronization. For instance, the correct operation of automation and control systems, measurement and automatic test systems, power generation, transmission, and distribution typically require a sub-microsecond time accuracy. This paper analyses the main attack vectors and stresses the need for software integrity control at network nodes of Industry 4.0 applications to complement existing security solutions that focus on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio-frequency spectrum and Precision Time Protocol (PTP), also known as IEEE-1588. A real implementation of a Software Integrity Architecture in accordance with Trusted Computing principles concludes the work, together with the presentation of promising results obtained with a flexible and reconfigurable testbed for hands-on activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: trusted computing; industry 4.0; cyber-physical system; time synchronization; cybersecurity; global navigation satellite system; embedded system trusted computing; industry 4.0; cyber-physical system; time synchronization; cybersecurity; global navigation satellite system; embedded system
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Margaria, D.; Vesco, A. Trusted GNSS-Based Time Synchronization for Industry 4.0 Applications. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8288. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188288

AMA Style

Margaria D, Vesco A. Trusted GNSS-Based Time Synchronization for Industry 4.0 Applications. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(18):8288. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188288

Chicago/Turabian Style

Margaria, Davide, and Andrea Vesco. 2021. "Trusted GNSS-Based Time Synchronization for Industry 4.0 Applications" Applied Sciences 11, no. 18: 8288. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188288

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop