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A Novel XOR-Based Threshold Visual Cryptography with Adjustable Pixel Expansion

School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
Guangxi Key Laboratory of Trusted Software, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541000, China
School of Computing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1321;
Received: 25 December 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2020 / Accepted: 6 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Computing and Artificial Intelligence)
A ( k , n ) visual cryptography (VC) scheme encodes a secret image into n shadows that are printed on transparencies distributed among a group of n participants secretly, and reveal the secret image by stacking no less than k of them. Its decryption requires no computation and attracts much attention in image security applications. The pixel expansion and contrast are two important characteristics to evaluate the visual quality of the revealed secret image for a ( k , n ) -VC scheme. The ( k , n ) XOR-based VC (XVC) schemes can greatly improve the visual quality including both pixel expansion and contrast. Previous methods require complex computation and result in high pixel expansion when they are used to construct such schemes. In this paper, we propose a pixel expansion adjustable ( k , n ) -XVC scheme, which allows pixel expansion to be changed among 2 k - 1 - 1 different values. It can ensure each pixel being exactly recovered with the same average contrast no matter it takes any pixel expansion value. The least pixel expansion is much smaller than previous schemes. Our scheme can be easily implemented based on any conventional OR-based ( k , n ) -VC (OVC) scheme. View Full-Text
Keywords: visual cryptography; XOR; pixel expansion; contrast visual cryptography; XOR; pixel expansion; contrast
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Guo, Y.; Jia, X.; Chu, Q.; Wang, D. A Novel XOR-Based Threshold Visual Cryptography with Adjustable Pixel Expansion. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 1321.

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