In recent years, optimal control which minimizes a cost function formulated by weighted states and control inputs has been applied to the seismic control of structures. Optimal control requires structural states which may not be available in real application; therefore, state estimation is essential, which inevitably takes additional computation time. However, time delay and state estimate error could affect the control performance. In this study, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model and an autoregressive with exogenous inputs (ARX) model in machine learning are applied to learn the control force generated from a linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) with weighting matrices optimized by applying symbiotic organisms search algorithm. A 10-story building is adopted as a benchmark model for training and validation of the MLP and ARX models. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the MLP and ARX models are able to emulate the LQR control force from the acceleration response directly, indicating that state estimation is not essential for optimal control implementation in real application. Finally, the machine-learning based approach is experimentally validated by conducting shake table testing in the laboratory in which the structural model is controlled by an active mass damper. The experimental results and structural control performance of the MLP and ARX models are compared with those of the LQR with a Kalman filter.
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