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Open AccessArticle

Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Erythrocytes of Captive Pre-Juvenile Loggerhead Turtles Following Acute Exposure to Methylmercury

1
Department of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Genetics, Molecular Biology and Bioinformatic Research Group—GENBIMOL, Jorge Tadeo Lozano University, Cra. 4 No 22-61, Bogotá 110311, Colombia
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Calle 45, Cra. 7, Bogotá 110231, Colombia
3
Sergio Arboleda University, Institute of Environmental Studies and Services, IDEASA Research Group—IDEASA, Bogotá 111711, Colombia
4
NCBI, NLM, NIH Computational Biology Branch, Building 38A, Room 6S614M 8600 Rockville Pike, MSC 6075 Bethesda, MD 20894-6075, USA
5
Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Group, National University of Colombia, Calle 45 Cra. 30, Bogotá 111321, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3602; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103602
Received: 21 April 2020 / Revised: 15 May 2020 / Accepted: 19 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
This study describes the use of erythrocytes (RBCs) of loggerhead turtles as in vitro models for evaluating their toxicity to methylmercury. Blood samples of loggerhead turtles that were born in the Colombian Caribbean were used. The LC50 of RBCs to methylmercury was determined at 96 h using methylmercury concentrations of 0.5–100 mg L−1. Next, the viability of the RBCs and the activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation by malondialdehyde (MDA) at 6 and 12 h of exposure to acute concentrations of 0, 1, and 5 mg L−1 were evaluated. The LC50 for loggerhead turtle RBCs was 8.32 mg L−1. The cell viability bioassay of RBCs exposed for 12 h only showed 100% cell viability. Increasing in vitro MeHg concentrations caused a corresponding increase in MDA concentration as well as decreases in the activities of SOD and GST. The RBCs represent an excellent model for ecotoxicological studies and SOD, GST, and MDA are biomarkers of environmental pollution and oxidative stress in loggerhead turtles. This was the first study conducted on loggerhead turtle where the response of RBCs to MeHg-induced oxidative stress is evaluated. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cytotoxicity; erythrocytes; methylmercury; malondialdehyde; in vitro; superoxide dismutase Cytotoxicity; erythrocytes; methylmercury; malondialdehyde; in vitro; superoxide dismutase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hernández-Fernández, J.; López-Barrera, E.A.; Mariño-Ramírez, L.; Rodríguez-Becerra, P.; Pinzón-Velasco, A. Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Erythrocytes of Captive Pre-Juvenile Loggerhead Turtles Following Acute Exposure to Methylmercury. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 3602.

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